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Charles Williams Flexner, M.D.

Director, AIDS Clinical Trials Unit; Deputy Director, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research
Professor of Medicine

Male  | Languages: English, Italian

Appointment Phone

410-955-1725

Main Location

The Johns Hopkins Hospital

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Titles

  • Director, AIDS Clinical Trials Unit; Deputy Director, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research
  • Professor of Medicine
  • Professor of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences

Centers & Institutes

Departments

Locations

The Johns Hopkins Hospital

Appointment Phone: 410-955-1725

600 N. Wolfe Street
Osler Suite 503
Baltimore, MD 21287 map
Phone: 410-955-9712

Contact for Research Inquiries

The Johns Hopkins Hospital

Osler 575
, map
Phone: 410-955-9712

Expertise

Infectious Diseases , Internal Medicine

Research Interests

Clinical Pharmacology; Antiviral chemotherapy; HIV protease inhibitors and entry inhibitors; Basic and clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs

Biography

Charles W. Flexner, M.D., is Professor of Medicine in the Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology and Infectious Diseases, and Professor of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He is also Professor of International Health in the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Flexner is an expert on the basic and clinical pharmacology of drugs for HIV/AIDS and related infections, including viral hepatitis and tuberculosis. His scientific contributions include work on the important roles of pharmacokinetic enhancement, adherence, and dosing frequency in the long-term management of HIV/AIDS. He has published extensively on anti-infective drug transport and metabolism, and metabolic drug interactions. Dr. Flexner is currently the Deputy Director of the Institute for Clinical and Translational Research at Johns Hopkins, where he serves as Program Director for Clinical Research Units. He also serves as Associate Vice-Chair for Academic Fellowship Programs in the Department of Medicine, and Associate Director of the Graduate Training Programs in Clinical Investigation of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Flexner is the Principal Investigator of the Johns Hopkins University AIDS Clinical Trials Unit (ACTU) supported by the NIH, and was Chair of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Translational Research and Drug Development (TRADD) Committee from 2009-2011. Dr. Flexner served as President of the American Federation for Medical Research (AFMR) in 1999-2000, and was President of the AFMR Foundation from 2001-2002. He is a member of the editorial board of 10 scientific journals. He currently serves as a consultant to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Clinton Health Access Initiative, and served as a consultant on FDA reform to the United States House of Representatives.

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    Additional Information

  • Education +

    Degrees

    • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1982)

    Certifications

    • American Board of Internal Medicine / Internal Medicine (1986)
  • Research & Publications +

    Research Summary

    Clinical research activities investigate the clinical pharmacology of new anti-HIV therapies and drug combinations. Specific drug classes studied include HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, entry inhibitors (selective CCR5 and CXCR4 antagonists), and integrase inhibitors. Scientific objectives of clinical studies include characterization of early drug activity, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics. Additional objectives are characterization of pathways of drug metabolism, and identification of clinically significant harmful and beneficial drug interactions mediated by hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 isoforms.

    Lab:

    Laboratory activities include the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) techniques to measure intracellular drugs and drugs metabolites. AMS is a highly sensitive method for detecting tracer amounts of radio-labeled molecules in cells, tissues, and body fluids. We have been able to measure intracellular zidovudine triphosphate (the active anabolite of zidovudine) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers given small doses of 14C-zidovudine, and have directly compared the sensitivity of AMS to traditional LC/MS methods carried out in our laboratory.

    Clinical Trials:

    Flexner C, Tierney C, Gross R, Andrade A, Lalama C, Eshleman SH, Aberg J, Sanne I, Parsons T, Kashuba A, Rosenkranz SL, Kmack A, Ferguson E, Dehlinger M, Mildvan D, AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5073 Study Team. Comparison of once-daily versus twice-daily combination antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients: results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5073, a 48-week randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50:1041–1052. [PMCID #2833234; NIHMS #168892]

    Wilkin TJ, Su Z, Krambrink A, Long J, Greaves WL, Gross R, Hughes MD, Flexner C, Skolnik PR, Coakley E, Godfrey C, Hirsch M, Kuritzkes DR, Gulick RM, AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5211 Study Team. Three-year safety and efficacy of vicriviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, in HIV-1-infected, treatment-experienced patients. J Acq Immunodef Syndr 2010; 54:470–476.

    Crawford KW, Spritzler J, Kalayjian R, Parsons T, Landay A, Pollard R, Stoker V, Lederman M, Flexner C. Age-related changes in the plasma concentrations of the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010; 26: 635-643.

    Soon GH, Shen P, Yong E-L, Flexner C, Pham P, Lee LS. Pharmacokinetics of darunavir 900 mg and ritonavir 100 mg once daily when co-administered with efavirenz 600 mg once daily in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010; 54: 2775-2780.

    Chen J, Garner RC, Lee LS, Seymour M, Fuchs EJ, Hubbard W, Parsons T, Pakes GE, Fletcher CV, Flexner C. Accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of intracellular concentrations of active drug metabolites in human target cells in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 88: 796-800; published online October 27, 2010, as http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/clpt.2010.188.

    Wang L-Z, Lee L, Thuya W-L, Soon GH, Kong L-R, Nye P-L, Jon-Deoon E-L, Flexner C, Goh B-C. Simultaneous determination of raltegravir and raltegravir glucuronide in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrometry 2011; 46: 202-208.

    Wang L, Soon GH, Seng K-Y, Li J, Lee E, Yong E-L, Goh B-C, Flexner C, Lee L. Pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and intracellular concentrations of raltegravir in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55: 4090-4095.

    Dooley KE, Park J-G, Swindells S, Allen R, Haas DW, Cramer Y, Aweeka F, Wiggins I, Gupta A, Lizak P, Qasba S, van Heeswijk R, Flexner C, and the ACTG 5267 Study Team. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic interactions of the antituberculous agent TMC207 (bedaquiline) with efavirenz in healthy volunteers: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5267. J Acq Immunodef Syndr 2012; 59:455-462.

    Chen J, Flexner C, Liberman RG, Skipper PL, Louissaint N, Tannenbaum SR, Hendrix CW, Fuchs EJ. Biphasic elimination of tenofovir diphosphate and nonlinear pharmacokinetics of zidovudine triphosphate in a microdosing study. J Acq Immunodef Syndr 2012; 61: 593-599.

    Lee LS, Pham P, Flexner C. Unexpected drug-drug interactions in HIV therapy: induction of UGT1A1 and bile efflux transporters by efavirenz. Annals Acad Med (Singapore) 2012; 41: 559-562.

    Dooley KE, Sayre P, Borland, J, Purdy E, Chen S, Song I, Peppercorn A, Everts S, Piscitelli S, Flexner C. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir given twice daily with rifampin or once daily with rifabutin: results of a phase 1 study among healthy subjects. J Acq Immune Defic Syndr 2013; 62: 21-27. [October 15, 2012 Epub ahead of print]

    Williams J, Sayles HR, Meza JL, Sayre P, Sandkovsky U, Gendelman HE, Flexner C, Swindells S. Long-acting parenteral nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy: interest and attitudes of HIV-infected patients. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013; 8: 1807-1813. [April 23, 2013 Epub ahead of print]

    Andrade A, Rosenkranz SL, Cillo A, Lu D, Daar E, Jacobson JM, Lederman M, Acosta E, Read S, Campbell T, Feinberg J, Flexner C, Mellors JW, Kuritzkes DR, AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5248 Team. Three distinct phases of HIV-1 RNA decay in treatment-naïve patients receiving raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy: ACTG A5248 study. J Infect Dis 2013; 208:884-891.


    Clinical Trial Keywords: Phase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1, Pharmacokinetics

    Selected Publications View all on PubMed

    1. Finzi D, Blankson J, Siliciano JD, Margolick JB, Chadwick K, Pierson T, Smith K, Lisziewicz J, Lori F, Flexner C, Quinn TC, Chaisson RE, Rosenberg E, Walker B, Gange S, Gallant J, Siliciano RF. 1999. Latentinfection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy. Nature Med 5:512-517.
    2. Hendrix CW, Flexner C, MacFarland RT, Fuchs EJ, Redpath E, Bridger G, Henson GW. 2000. Pharmacokinetics and safety of AMD-3100, a novel antagonist of the CXCR-4 chemokine receptor, in human volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44: 1667-1673.
    3. Speck RS, Flexner C, Tian C-J, Yu X-F. 2000. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Pr55Gag and Pr160Gag-Pol processing intermediates that accumulate in primary and transformed cells treated with peptidic and non-peptidic protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44: 1397-1403.
    4. Speck RR, Yu X-F, Hildreth, JE, Flexner C. 2002. Differential effects of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein-1 on productive HIV infection. J Infect Dis 186: 332-340.
    5. Nettles RE, Kieffer TL, Parsons T, Johnson J, Cofrancesco J, Gallant JE, , Carson K, Siliciano RF, Flexner C. Marked intraindividual variability in antiretroviral concentrations may limit the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 1189-1196.
    6. Flexner C. HIV drug development: the next 25 years. (Invited review). Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2007; 6: 959-966.
    7. Crawford KW, Li C, Keung A, Su Z, Hughes MD, Greaves W, Kuritzkes D, Gulick R, Flexner C, for the ACTG A5211 Study Team. Pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic modeling of the antiretroviral activity of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc in treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. J Acq Immunodef Syndr 2010; 53: 598–605.
    8. Crawford KW, Spritzler J, Kalayjian R, Parsons T, Landay A, Pollard R, Stoker V, Lederman M, Flexner C. Age-related changes in the plasma concentrations of the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010; 26: 635-643.
    9. Flexner C, Tierney C, Gross R, Andrade A, Lalama C, Eshleman SH, Aberg J, Sanne I, Parsons T, Kashuba A, Rosenkranz SL, Kmack A, Ferguson E, Dehlinger M, Mildvan D, AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5073 Study Team. Comparison of once-daily versus twice-daily combination antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients: results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5073, a 48-week randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50:1041–1052. [PMCID #2833234]
    10. Chen J, Garner RC, Lee LS, Seymour M, Fuchs EJ, Hubbard W, Parsons T, Pakes GE, Fletcher CV, Flexner C. Accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of intracellular concentrations of active drug metabolites in human target cells in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 88: 796-800.
    11. Swindells S, Flexner C, Fletcher CV, Jacobson JM. The critical need for alternative antiretroviral formulations and obstacles to their development. J Infect Dis 2011; 204: 669-674.
    12. Wang L, Soon GH, Seng K-Y, Li J, Lee E, Yong E-L, Goh B-C, Flexner C, Lee L. Pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and intracellular concentrations of raltegravir in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55: 4090-4095.
    13. Crawford KW, Ripin DHB, Levin AD, Campbell JR, Flexner C. Optimizing the manufacturing, formulation, and dosage of antiretroviral drugs for more cost-efficient delivery in resource-limited settings: a consensus statement. Lancet Infect Dis 2012; 12: 550–60.
    14. Chen J, Flexner C, Liberman RG, Skipper PL, Louissaint N, Tannenbaum SR, Hendrix CW, Fuchs EJ. Biphasic elimination of tenofovir diphosphate and nonlinear pharmacokinetics of zidovudine triphosphate in a microdosing study. J Acq Immunodef Syndr 2012; 61: 593-599.
    15. Williams J, Sayles HR, Meza JL, Sayre P, Sandkovsky U, Gendelman HE, Flexner C, Swindells S. Long-acting parenteral nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy: interest and attitudes of HIV-infected patients. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013; 8: 1807-1813.
  • Academic Affiliations & Courses +
  • Activities & Honors +

    Honors

    • Student Research Award, American Federation for Clinical Research, 1976
    • Graduation with Distinction and Departmental Honors, Stanford University, 1978
    • Phi Beta Kappa, Stanford University, 1978
    • Denison Research Scholar, Johns Hopkins University, 1980 - 1981
    • Alpha Omega Alpha, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1982
    • Warfield Longcope Prize for Outstanding Performance in Clinical Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1982
    • Clinical Investigator Award, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, 1990 - 1993
    • Faculty Career Development Award in Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association Foundation, 1990 - 1994
    • Leon I. Goldberg Young Investigator Award, American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1994
    • Pfizer Visiting Professor of Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 1995
    • Professor's Award for Distinction in Teaching in the Pre-Clinical Divisions, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1999 - 2000
    • Samuel S. Riven Visiting Professor of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, 1999
    • Kimsey Visiting Professor of Microbiology, University of Louisville College of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, 2000
    • Leadership Development Program, Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2003 - 2004
    • Joseph E. Murray Lecturer, American Association of Plastic Surgeons, 2006
    • Visiting Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases, Universita degli Studi, Turin, Italy, 2008 - 2013
    • Honorary Fellow Award presented annually to a single individual in recognition of career achievement in the field of clinical pharmacology, American College of Clinical Pharmacology, San Diego, 2012
    • Visiting Professor, Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, 2012

    Memberships

    • American Federation for Medical Research Foundation
      Secretary-Treasurer, 1999-2000; President, 2001-2002.
    • American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1992 - 2001
      Board of Directors, 1995-98, 2000-2003; Long Range Planning Committee, 1995-2001; Membership Committee, 1994-97; Scientific Program Committee, 1995-96; Education Committee, 1997-2000; Government Affairs Committee, 1998-2001 and 2005-2009; Vice-President, 2001-2002.
    • International Society for Antiviral Research, 1993 - 2007
      Local Organizing Committee, Annual Meeting 2000, Scientific Program Committee 1999-2001
    • American Federation for Medical ResearchPresident, 2000-2001., 1995
      Medical School Representative 1995-1998. President, Eastern Section, 1998-2000. National Council, 1998–2002. President-Elect, 1999-2000.
    • American College of Physicians, 1997 - 1999
      Council of Medical Specialties, ASCPT Representative 1997-99
    • American Society for Microbiology=, 1999 - 2005
    • International AIDS Society, 1999
      International Scientific Review Committee 1999-present, Program Committee 2002-3.
    • The Healthcare Consortium, 1999 - 2000
      Board of Directors, 1999-2000.
    • Association for Clinical Research Training, 2002
      Advocacy/Public Policy Committee, 2005-present
    • Association for Patient-Oriented Research, 2002 - 2012
      Board of Directors, 2005-2008
    • Association of Subspecialty Professors, 2006 - 2009
      Councilor At-Large, 2006-2009
    • International Antiviral Society, 2010
      USA. Hepatitis Program Advisory Board Member, 2010-present
    • Association for Clinical and Translational Science, 2012
      Patient-Oriented Research Standing Committee Core Member 2012-present; Education and Evaluation Committee Member 2012-present

    Professional Activities

    • Council of Medical Specialties, American College of Physicians
    • Board of Directors, American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1995 - 1998
    • Long Range Planning Committee, American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1995 - 2001
    • Medical School Representative, American Federation for Medical Research, 1995 - 1998
    • Scientific Program Committee, American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1995 - 1996
    • ASCPT Representative, American College of Physicians, 1997 - 1999
    • Education Committee, American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1997 - 2000
    • National Council, American Federation for Medical Research, 1998 - 2002
    • President, American Federation for Medical Research, 1998 - 2000
      Eastern Section
    • Board of Directors, The Healthcare Consortium, 1999 - 2000
    • International Scientific Review Committee, International AIDS Society, 1999
    • President Elect, American Federation for Medical Research, 1999 - 2000
    • Scientific Program Committee, International Society for Antiviral Research, 1999 - 2001
    • Secretary-Treasurer, American Federation for Medical Research Foundation, 1999 - 2000
    • Local Organizing Committee, International Society for Antiviral Research, 2000 - 2000
      Annual Meeting
    • President, American Federation for Medical Research, 2000 - 2001
    • President, American Federation for Medical Research Foundation, 2001 - 2002
    • Vice-President, American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2001 - 2002
    • Program Committee, International AIDS Society, 2002 - 2003
    • Advocacy/Public Policy Committee, Association for Clinical Research Training, 2005
    • Board of Directors, Association for Patient-Oriented Research, 2005 - 2008
    • Government Affairs Committee, American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2005 - 2009
    • Councilor At-Large, Association of Subspecialty Professors, 2006 - 2009
  • Videos & Media +

    Lectures and Presentations

    Potential Use of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Vectors as Vaccines
    Horizons in Biotechnology , Sacramento, California (10/01/1986)
    American Society of Microbiology

    Vaccinia Virus as a Vehicle in the Development of Multiple Vaccines
    Research Lecture , Canadian Society of Clinical Investigation / Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Annual Meeting , Winnipeg, Manitoba (09/01/1987)
    Canadian Infectious Diseases Society

    Vaccinia Virus as a Carrier for Vaccine Antigens
    American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Symposium on Vaccine Development , New Orleans, Louisiana (10/01/1990)

    Strategies for the Delivery of Cloned Vaccine Antigens
    Edna McConnell Clark Foundation Lecture , Woods Hole, Massachusetts (04/01/1991)

    Frontiers in AIDS Drug Development
    Associates of Clinical Pharmacology Symposium Address , San Diego, CA (04/01/1991)

    Concentration-Controlled Trial Methodology in the Development of an Antiretroviral Nucleoside
    33rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Symposium on the Pharmacology of Antiretroviral Chemotherapy , New Orleans, Louisiana (10/01/1993)

    Role of Clinical Pharmacology in the Early Development of Antiretroviral Drugs
    Goldberg Young Investigator Award Lecture , American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Annual Meeting, , New   Orleans, Louisiana (03/01/1994)

    Protein Binding: What Is the Clinical Relevance? International Society for Antiviral Research Annual Meeting
    International Society for Antiviral Research Plenary Address , Urabandai, Japan (05/01/1996)

    Plasma Protein Binding and Pharmacodynamics of Protease Inhibitors
    Symposium on Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Protease Inhibitors (Symposium Chair) , Fourth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections , Washington, DC (01/01/1997)

    Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of New Antiretroviral Drugs
    American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics/American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Joint Symposium on Molecular Therapeutics of HIV , San Diego, CA (03/01/1997)

    Training the Clinical Investigator
    Biomedicine ’97 Symposium on Clinical Research , Washington, DC (04/01/1997)
    American Federation for Medical Research

    Antiretroviral Drug Interactions: The Tar Pit or the Tar Baby?
    Infectious Diseases Society of America Annual Meeting Symposium , San Francisco, CA (09/01/1997)

    Pharmacologic Causes of Treatment Failure
    Plenary Session on Antiretroviral Therapy , Fifth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections , Chicago, IL (02/01/1998)

    Antiretroviral Drug Interactions
    38th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Symposium on Managing the Toxicity of HIV Therapy , San Diego, CA (09/01/1998)

    Use of Quality-of-Life Data in the Drug Approval Process
    International Society for Quality of Life Research Annual Meeting , Baltimore, MD (11/01/1999)

    "Novel Drug Delivery and HIV: Hope or Hype?
    Session Chair , National Institutes of Health Roundtable on HIV Therapeutics: Drug Delivery Devices and Formulations , Gaithersburg, MD (04/01/1999)

    “FDA Financial Disclosure: A Medical Perspective
    Drug Information Association Symposium on Conflict of Interest , Washington, DC (06/01/1999)

    “Assessing Pharmacologic Risk and Benefit
    International AIDS Society State-of-the-Art Symposium , Rome, Italy (09/01/1999)

    “Do Unsafe Drugs Enter and Remain in the Marketplace?
    American College of Toxicology Annual Meeting , Washington, DC (11/01/1999)

    “HAART Metabolism and Pharmacogenetics
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Symposium on Alcohol Use and HIV Pharmacotherapy , Bethesda, MD (04/01/2000)

    "Antimicrobial Drug Interactions
    Meet-the-Experts , 40th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , Toronto, Ontario (09/01/2000)

    “Why HIV-Infected Patients Fail Therapy
    Kimsey Lectureship , University of Louisville College of Medicine , Louisville, KY (10/01/2000)

    “Drug Transporters and HIV Pathogenesis
    Eighth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections Symposium on Drug Transporters (Session Chair) , Chicago, IL (02/01/2001)

    Plenary “Evidence-Based Pharmacology
    Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS Annual Meeting , Washington, DC (06/01/2001)

    Integrating Adherence Genotype Phenotype and TDM
    International Congress of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology Symposium on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Antiretrovirals (Session Chair) , Washington, DC (09/01/2001)

    “Genetic Causes, Genetic Solutions, and the Future of Pharmacology
    FDA College Course on Pharmacogenetics: A Tool for Drug Development and Individualization of Disease Management , Rockville, MD (04/01/2002)

    “Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Pharmacogenomics and Biomarkers for AIDS
    American Association for Clinical Chemistry Annual Meeting , Baltimore, MD (02/01/2003)

    Current Concepts in Developing Drugs for HIV and Other Viral Diseases
    Meet the Professors Session , American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Annual Meeting , Washington, DC (04/01/2003)

    “Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
    and Biomarkers for AIDS , American Association for Clinical Chemistry Annual Meeting , Baltimore, MD (02/01/2003)

    Plenary “Genetic Causes
    and the Future of Pharmacotherapy , Society of Toxicologic Pathology , Savannah, GA (06/01/2003)

    The New Biology of Drug Transporters and Drug Metabolizing Enzymes: Implications for Clinical Practice
    International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment , Paris, France (07/01/2003)

    Pharmacologic Monitoring of Complex Patient Scenarios
    Session Chair and Panelist , Workshop , 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections , San Francisco, CA (02/01/2004)

    “Causality, Inference, and Pharmacokinetics as a Biomarker
    American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Annual Meeting Symposium on Method Effectiveness versus Use Effectiveness , Miami, FL (03/01/2004)

    Lecture entitled “Genes, the Enviroment, and Drugs: A Pharmacogenetics Primer
    NIH NIAID Office of Scientific Resource Development Course , Rockville, MD (04/01/2005)

    Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions in the Treatment of Hepatitis B and C
    First International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of Hepatitis Therapy , Quebec, Canada (04/01/2005)

    The Inviolable Social Contract: Education and the Academic Medical Center
    American Association of Plastic Surgeons , Hilton Head, SC (05/01/2006)

    Symposium address entitled “The Pharmacology of Aging: Implications for HIV Therapy
    15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections , Boston, MA (02/01/2008)

    Why Adherence Can Be a Matter of Life and Death: Adherence, Convenience and Dosing Frequency as Determinants of Outcome in Antiretroviral Therapy
    Keynote Speaker , Drug Information Association Symposium on Improving Drug Development Using Patient Adherence Data in Clinical Trials , Washington, DC (05/01/2008)

    Role of Drug Interactions in the Management of Hepatitis Infections
    Plenary Speaker , Sixth International Workshop on HIV and Hepatitis , Tel Aviv, Israel (05/01/2010)

    Horizon Scanning: The Future of Antiretrovirals
    Plenary Speaker , Second Italian Conference on AIDS and Retroviruses , Brescia, Italy (06/01/2010)

    HIV Pharmacology and Product Development
    Plenary Speaker , NIAID conference , Nano- and Emerging Technologies for HIV/AIDS , Potomac, MD (10/01/2010)
    American Society for Nanomedicine and Division of AIDS

    A Tale of Two Viruses: Pharmacology’s Role in the Management of Hepatitis Virus Infections
    Plenary Speaker , Twelfth International Workshop on the Clinical Pharmacology of HIV Therapy , Miami, FL (04/01/2011)

    The Role of Protein Binding and Stereochemistry in Drug-Drug Interactions
    Plenary Speaker , 14th International Workshop on the Clinical Pharmacology of HIV Therapy , Amsterdam, NL (04/01/2013)

    Coformulation, Compaction, and Simplification: How Much Difference Does It Really Make?
    Clinical Pharmacology Update on Antiretrovirals for HIV Treatment and Prevention , Washington, DC (09/01/2014)
    ICAAC 2014

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