The Johns Hopkins Pulmonary Function Laboratory

Equations and Sources for Predicted PFT Values


JHH - Johns Hopkins Hospital

The Johns Hopkins Hospital predicted equations are derived from a combination of several sources of data in the literature. Vital capacities (VC, SVC, and FVC) are computed from the equations of Goldman and Becklake:

VC = 0.1626*Height(inches) - 0.031*Age(years) - 5.335 [Men]
VC = 0.1321*Height(inches) - 0.018*Age(years) - 4.360 [Women]

Equations for residual volume are also taken from Goldman and Becklake:

RV = 0.0687*Height(inches) + 0.017*Age(years) - 3.447 [Men]
RV = 0.0813*Height(inches) + 0.009*Age(years) - 3.900 [Women]

Total lung capacity (TLC) is found by adding predicted values for RV and VC.

Equations for functional residual capacity (FRC) are derived from data reported by Bates, which were in turn derived from the data of Goldman:

FRC = 0.1295*Height(inches) - 5.19 [Men]
FRC = 0.1220*Height(inches) - 5.01 [Women]
 

Equations for FEV1/FVC are derived from the data of Miller, Kory, Gaensler, Tiffeneau, and Pemberton & Flanagan:

FEV1%= 91.4 - 0.2*Age(years) [All]
 

Predicted values for FEV1 are computed by multiplying the predicted FEV1% by the predicted FVC.

The ratio of single breath diffusing capacity to alveolar volume (DL/VA) is derived from the data of Burrows:

DL/VA= 5.36 - 0.0246*Age(years) [All]

Predicted DLCO is computed by multiplying the predicted DL/VA by the predicted TLC.
 


Crapo

Sources

Crapo RO, Morris AH, and Gardner RM.  Reference Spirometric Values Using Techniques
   and Equpment That Meet ATS Recommendations.  Am. Rev. of Respir. Dis. 1981; 123:659-664.

and

Crapo RO and Morris AH.  Standardized Single-Breath Normal Values for Carbon Monoxide
   Diffusing Capacity.  Am. Rev. of Respir. Dis. 1981; 123:185-189.

and

Crapo RO, Morris AH, Clayton PD, and Nixon CR.  Lung Volumes in Healthy Nonsmoking
   Adults.  Bull. Europ. Physiopathol. Respir. 1982; 18:419-425.

Equations

FVC  = 0.1524*Height(inches) - 0.0214*Age(years) - 4.6500 [Men]
FVC  = 0.1247*Height(inches) - 0.0216*Age(years) - 3.5900 [Women]

FEV1 = 0.1052*Height(inches) - 0.0244*Age(years) - 2.1900 [Men]
FEV1 = 0.0869*Height(inches) - 0.0255*Age(years) - 1.5780 [Women]

FEV1% = Predicted FEV1 / Predicted FVC

RV   = 0.0495*Height(inches) + 0.0246*Age(years) - 2.6830 [Men]
RV   = 0.0251*Height(inches) + 0.0216*Age(years) - 0.9470 [Women]

TLC  = 0.2019*Height(inches) + 0.0032*Age(years) - 7.333 [Men]
TLC  = 0.1499*Height(inches)                     - 4.5370 [Women]

DLCO = 1.0566*Height(inches) - 0.2190*Age(years) - 26.34  [Men]
DLCO = 0.6502*Height(inches) - 0.1440*Age(years) -  8.36  [Women]
 


Morris

Source

Morris JF, Koski A, and Johnson LC.  Spirometric Standards for Healthy
   Non-Smoking Adults.  Am. Rev. of Respir. Dis. 1971; 103:57-67.

Equations

FVC  = 0.1481*Height(inches) - 0.0250*Age(years) - 4.2410 [Men]
FVC  = 0.1151*Height(inches) - 0.0240*Age(years) - 2.8520 [Women]

FEV1 = 0.0919*Height(inches) - 0.0320*Age(years) - 1.2600 [Men]
FEV1 = 0.0889*Height(inches) - 0.0250*Age(years) - 1.9310 [Women]

FEV1% = Predicted FEV1 / Predicted FVC


NHANES / Hankinson

Source

Hankinson, JL, Odencrantz JR, Fedan KB.  Spirometric Reference Values from a
     Sample of the General U.S. Population  Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:179-187.

Equations

     Age = age in years
     Ht = height in centimeters

FVC  = -0.2584-0.20415*Age+0.010133*Age*Age+0.00018642*Ht*Ht [Men, Age to 19]
FVC  = -0.1933+0.00064*Age-0.000269*Age*Age+0.00018642*Ht*Ht [Men, Age 20 and over] 
FVC  = -0.3560+0.01870*Age-0.000382*Age*Age+0.00014815*Ht*Ht [Women, Age 18 and over]

FEV1  = -0.7453-0.04106*Age+0.004477*Age*Age+0.00014098*Ht*Ht [Men, Age to 19]
FEV1  =  0.5536-0.01303*Age-0.000172*Age*Age+0.00014098*Ht*Ht [Men, Age 20 and over] 
FEV1  =  0.4333-0.00361*Age-0.000194*Age*Age+0.00011496*Ht*Ht [Women, Age 18 and over]

FEV1% = Predicted FEV1 / Predicted FVC


Cherniak

Source

Cherniak RM and Raber MD.  Normal Standards for Ventilatory Function Using
   an Automated Wedge Spirometer.  Am. Rev. of Respir. Dis. 1972; 106:38-46.

Equations

FVC  = 0.1672*Height(inches) - 0.02954*Age(years) - 5.12451 [Men]
FVC  = 0.1411*Height(inches) - 0.00793*Age(years) - 4.89036 [Women]

FEV1 = 0.1149*Height(inches) - 0.03509*Age(years) - 2.59946 [Men]
FEV1 = 0.1034*Height(inches) - 0.02147*Age(years) - 2.56958 [Women]

FEV1% = Predicted FEV1 / Predicted FVC


Knudson

Source

Knudson, RJ, et. al.  The Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve Normal Standards, Variability,
   and Effects of Age.  Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 113:589-590, 1976.

Equations

FVC  = 0.1270*Height(inches) + 0.0780*Age(years) - 5.508 [Young Men, Age To 24]
FVC  = 0.1651*Height(inches) - 0.0290*Age(years) - 5.459 [Men, Age Greater Than 24]

FVC  = 0.0838*Height(inches) + 0.0920*Age(years) - 3.469 [Young Women, Age To 19]
FVC  = 0.0940*Height(inches) - 0.0220*Age(years) - 1.774 [Young Women, Age Greater Than 19]

FEV1 = 0.1168*Height(inches) + 0.0450*Age(years) - 4.808 [Young Men, Age To 24]
FEV1 = 0.1321*Height(inches) - 0.0270*Age(years) - 4.203 [Men, Age Greater Than 24]

FEV1 = 0.0686*Height(inches) + 0.0850*Age(years) - 2.703 [Young Women, Age To 19]
FEV1 = 0.0686*Height(inches) - 0.0210*Age(years) - 0.794 [Young Women, Age Greater Than 19]

FEV1% = Predicted FEV1 / Predicted FVC


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