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Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men and the second leading cause of cancer death for men. The Prostate Cancer Program’s research portfolio crosses many specialties and encompasses all aspects of the disease, including new approaches to prostate cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment, understanding the genetic underpinnings of this cancer and population studies that lead to a more complete understanding of disease susceptibility and better ways to improve outcomes for men. Investigators are unraveling the biology of prostate cancer to identify genetic risk factors, the pathology that identifies the most aggressive forms of the cancer, the role of a biological characteristic, known as DNA methylation, in driving the progression of prostate cancer, and how inflammation may influence the disease. Novel targeted therapies are springing from advances in prostate cancer genetics, epigenetics and immunology. A major goal is the development of biomarkers to improve detection, diagnosis, evaluate risk and aggressiveness of disease, and monitor cancers to guide clinicians toward the best therapies for individual patients and away from overtreatment and its resulting quality-of-life impacting side effects.