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A chemical biologist and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine report that the antigrowth activity of the small molecule triptolide, tested in human cells and mice, is vastly improved by the chemical attachment of glucose to the triptolide molecule. The chemical add-on makes the molecule more soluble and essentially turns it into a “cruise missile” that preferentially seeks out cancer cells, the research says. The change might also decrease side effects in patients and make the drug easier to administer.
Cancer researchers have long observed the value of treating patients with combinations of anti-cancer drugs that work better than single drug treatments. Now, in a new study using laboratory-grown cells and mice, Johns Hopkins scientists report that a method they used to track metabolic pathways heavily favored by cancer cells provides scientific evidence for combining anti-cancer drugs, including one in a nanoparticle format developed at Johns Hopkins, that specifically target those pathways.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have developed a system that uses transformed human stem cells to speed up screening of existing drugs that might work against rare brain and other cancers.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and University of Melbourne report they have used a genetic test that spots bits of cancer-related DNA circulating in the blood to accurately predict the likelihood of the disease’s return in some — but not all — of a small group of patients with early-stage colon cancer.
When an immune T cell divides into two daughter cells, the activity of an enzyme called mTORC1, which controls protein production, splits unevenly between the progeny, producing two cells with different properties. Such “asymmetric division,” uncovered by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers using lab-grown cells and specially bred mice, could offer new ways to enhance cancer immunotherapy and may have other implications for studying how stem cells differentiate.
In what is believed to be the largest study of its kind, scientists at the Johns Hopkins University and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory led a study that examined the proteomes of 169 ovarian cancer patients to identify critical proteins expressed by their tumors
In a sample study, researchers at Johns Hopkins say they have found an association between the makeup of an individual’s microbiome and head and neck cancer, a finding that potentially advances the quest for faster and more accurate cancer diagnosis and therapy.
What will it take to move cancer research forward? That’s the focus of a summit convened by Vice President Joe Biden at Howard University in Washington, D.C., on June 29. The gathering will include patients, cancer clinicians, scientists, industry leaders and others to discuss topics including how to accelerate the pace of cancer research discoveries and data sharing, improve access to care, remove regulatory barriers, and foster collaboration among scientists and industry partners.
Case reports on 13 cancer patients suggest that a small number of cancer patients taking the immunotherapy drugs ipilimumab and nivolumab may be at some higher-than-normal risk of developing autoimmune joint and tissue diseases, including inflammatory arthritis, according to a preliminary study by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers.
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report they have developed an experimental laboratory test that accurately clocks the “speed” of human brain tumor cell movement along a small glass “track.” The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma patients, has the potential, they say, to predict how quickly and aggressively a given cancer might lethally spread.
In a new study using mice and lab-grown human cells, a scientific team led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers show how a triple-drug cocktail can shrink triple-negative breast cancers by killing off cancer cells and halting new tumor growth.
Many breast cancers are marked by a lack of HOXA5 protein, a gene product known to control cell differentiation and death, and lower levels of the protein correspond to poorer outcomes for patients. Now, results of a new study by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists suggests a powerful role for the protein in normal breast cells, acting as a tumor suppressor that halts abnormal cell growth.
On May 21, 2016, the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center is sponsoring a free education event for breast cancer survivors.
Carol Greider has been elected to join the American Philosophical Society, an honor that recognizes academics for extraordinary intellectual accomplishments in their fields of expertise. She joins five other researchers elected this year from the biological sciences, in addition to 27 from other academic fields.
In a clinical trial of the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab, half of 25 patients with a rare type of virus-linked skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma experienced substantial tumor shrinkage lasting nearly three times as long, on average, than with conventional chemotherapy. Several patients had no remaining evidence of disease. Results of the study are expected to be presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2016 (abstract CT096) in New Orleans and published online April 19 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
An experimental antibody treatment decreased by half the number of cancer stem cells that drive the growth of tumors in nearly all patients with multiple myeloma, a cancer of the bone marrow and bone tissue, according to results of a preliminary clinical trial led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists.
In a small, phase I clinical trial, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers say they show for the first time that the experimental drug guadecitabine (SGI-110) is safe in combination with the chemotherapy drug irinotecan and may overcome resistance to irinotecan in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Results of the study are expected to be presented April 17 at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2016 in New Orleans (abstract CT017).
A new institute studying immunology with the potential to eventually end all forms of cancer was announced today at Johns Hopkins by Vice President Joe Biden, Michael R. Bloomberg and more than a dozen additional supporters of this initiative. Embracing the vice president’s “moonshot” initiative to cure cancer, the new Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy was founded with gifts from Michael R. Bloomberg, philanthropist, entrepreneur and three-term mayor of New York City, and Jones Apparel Group founder Sidney Kimmel, who each contributed $50 million. An additional $25 million for the center is thanks to more than a dozen additional supporters.
Working with human breast cancer cells and mice, scientists say new experiments explain how certain cancer stem cells thrive in low oxygen conditions. Proliferation of such cells, which tend to resist chemotherapy and help tumors spread, are considered a major roadblock to successful cancer treatment.
Johns Hopkins scientists report they have developed an antibody against a specific cellular gateway that suppresses lung tumor cell growth and breast cancer metastasis in transplanted tumor experiments in mice, according to a new study published in the February issue of Nature Communications.
A study of obesity and related metabolic changes on bladder cancer incidence and deaths, and a plan to use stem cells to grow novel urinary tubes are among 10 research projects awarded funding by the Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute.
A look-back analysis of HPV infection antibodies in patients treated for oropharyngeal (mouth and throat) cancers linked to HPV infection suggests at least one of the antibodies could be useful in identifying those at risk for a recurrence of the cancer, say scientists at the Johns Hopkins University. A report on the study is published in the February issue of Cancer Prevention Research.
David J. McConkey, Ph.D., has been appointed director of the Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute, whose members include experts from the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, and the school of medicine’s departments of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Surgery, and Pathology.
A new study led by Johns Hopkins researchers shows wide racial and economic disparities in access to minimally invasive hysterectomies for early uterine cancer in the United States. This is despite years of accumulating evidence that the procedures to remove the uterus are linked to fewer postoperative complications, the researchers say.
In a “look-back” analysis of data stored on 130 patients with pancreatic cysts, scientists at Johns Hopkins have used gene-based tests and a fixed set of clinical criteria to more accurately distinguish precancerous cysts from those less likely to do harm. The findings may eventually help some patients in real time safely avoid surgery to remove harmless cysts. A report on the findings is published in the November issue of Gastroenterology.
Results of a new laboratory study by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers suggests that some rare “missense” mutations in the HER2 gene are apparently not — on their own — capable of causing breast cancer growth or spread. In a related finding, the research team said such mutations, which are found in about 5 percent of breast cancers, may, thus, also fail to predict response to anti-cancer drugs that target the HER2 gene, unlike the more common alterations of the gene that amplify or overexpress it.
On Tuesday, Nov. 3, experts in genetics, immunology, epidemiology, biology and pathology from the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins will discuss their projections for the future of cancer research and the challenges and opportunities facing cancer doctors and patients today. Topics discussed during the forum, which will be held from 1 p.m. to 2:30 p.m. at the Kimmel Cancer Center’s Albert H. Owens Jr. Auditorium, may include the promise of research fields such as precision medicine, immunotherapy, and cancer prevention.
Cancer “gene hunter” Kenneth W. Kinzler, Ph.D., co-director of the Ludwig Center at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, is one of 80 new members elected to the National Academy of Medicine. Members of the academy advise the U.S. government on medical and health issues. They are elected by their peers for their accomplishments and contributions to medical sciences, health care and public health.
A study led by Johns Hopkins researchers has linked the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma in solid organ transplant patients. But the same study also found that another class of immunosuppressive drugs, called calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), given alone or in combination with MMF, appears to protect transplant patients against this rare form of lymphoma.
Human Tumor "Avatars" Reveal New Genetic Sources of Drug Response in Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer ...
Using pieces of human tumors grafted into mice, a team led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers and their colleagues from the University of Torino has identified new mutations in six genes related to drug resistance and sensitivity in late-stage colorectal cancer.
For reasons unknown, many patients with breast cancer treated with the estrogen receptor-blocking drug tamoxifen eventually become resistant to the treatment despite the fact that their cancer cells still have the estrogen receptor proteins that the drug normally targets. Now, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists and their colleagues have traced out an intricate molecular pathway in those cells they say may explain, at least in part, how tamoxifen resistance develops.
Scientists have used a genetically engineered vaccine to successfully eradicate high-grade, precancerous cervical lesions in nearly half of women who received the vaccine in a clinical trial. The goal, say the scientists, was to find non-surgical ways to treat precancerous lesions caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
The Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center will break ground Sept. 10 on a new $100 million, 184,000-square-foot cancer care building at one of the highest elevations in East Baltimore. Slated to open in late 2017, the building is named for Albert P. “Skip” Viragh Jr., a Maryland mutual fund investment leader, philanthropist and pancreatic cancer patient treated at Johns Hopkins who died of the disease in 2003 at age 62.
Men with relatively unaggressive prostate tumors and whose disease is carefully monitored by urologists are unlikely to develop metastatic prostate cancer or die of their cancers, according to results of a study by researchers at the Brady Urological Institute at Johns Hopkins, who analyzed survival statistics up to 15 years.
Working with human cancer cell lines and mice, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and elsewhere have found a way to trigger a type of immune system “virus alert” that may one day boost cancer patients’ response to immunotherapy drugs. An increasingly promising focus of cancer research, the drugs are designed to disarm cancer cells’ ability to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have identified a molecular partnership in pancreatic cancer cells that might help to explain how the disease spreads — metastasizes — in some cases. Their findings reveal urgently needed new targets to treat pancreatic cancer, which strikes nearly 50,000 people in the United States each year and has only a 5 percent survival rate five years after diagnosis.
Oropharyngeal cancer patients who were found to have detectable traces of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) in their saliva following cancer treatment are at an increased risk for recurrence, a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has found.
Breast cancer survivors with a family history of the disease, including those who carry BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, gained more weight over the course of four years than cancer-free women — especially if they were treated with chemotherapy, according to a prospective study by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers.
In a review of nearly 2,000 surveys with people whose loved ones died of cancer, researchers led by Johns Hopkins experts say they found a 40 percent increase over a 12-year period in the number of patients with cancer who participated in one form of advance care planning — designating durable power of attorney privileges to a loved one — but no corresponding impact on their rates of aggressive medical care received in the last weeks of life.
In a genome-sequencing study of pancreatic cancers and blood in 101 patients, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists say they found at least one-third of the patients’ tumors have genetic mutations that may someday help guide precision therapy of their disease. Results of blood tests to detect DNA shed from tumors, they say, also predicted cancer recurrence more than half a year earlier than standard imaging methods.
Animal Study Shows Experimental Drug Combined with Standard Chemo May Shrink Treatment-Resistant ...
Working in cell cultures and mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins have found that an experimental drug called fostamatinib combined with the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel may overcome ovarian cancer cells’ resistance to paclitaxel.
On the hunt for better cancer screening tests, Johns Hopkins scientists led a proof of principle study that successfully identified tumor DNA shed into the blood and saliva of 93 patients with head and neck cancer. A report on the findings is published in the June 24 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
In a genome-wide association study believed to be the largest of its kind, Johns Hopkins researchers have uncovered four regions in the human genome where changes may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.
In preliminary experiments with mice and lab-grown cells, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have found that a protein-signaling process accelerates the work of the gene most frequently mutated in a common form of adult leukemia and is likely necessary to bring about the full-blown disease.
In a small clinical trial, scientists at Johns Hopkins’ Kimmel Cancer Center and James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute found that men with advanced prostate cancer and detection of androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) respond to chemotherapy just as well as men who lack the variant.
In a head-to-head clinical trial comparing standard chemotherapy with the immunotherapy drug nivolumab, researchers found that people with squamous-non-small cell lung cancer who received nivolumab lived, on average, 3.2 months longer than those receiving chemotherapy. Squamous non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 25 to 30 percent of all lung malignancies.
In a report of a proof-of-principle study of patients with colon and other cancers for whom standard therapies failed, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say that mistakes in so-called mismatch repair genes, first identified by Johns Hopkins and other scientists two decades ago, may accurately predict who will respond to certain immunotherapy drugs known as PD-1 inhibitors. Such drugs aim to disarm systems developed by cancer cells to evade detection and destruction by immune system cells.
In a report on what is believed to be the first small clinical trial of its kind, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have safely used immune cells grown from patients’ own bone marrow to treat multiple myeloma, a cancer of white blood cells.
Results of the trial involving a particular type of tumor-targeting T cell, known as marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs), are described in the May 20 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
Two studies from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers add to preliminary evidence that high-dose radiation treatment, called stereotactic body radiotherapy, appears to be safe and as effective as standard radiation treatment for certain patients with pancreatic cancer whose tumors are advanced but have not spread.
In what they are calling a surprising finding in a large study of men who completed questionnaires and allowed scientists to review their medical records, Johns Hopkins researchers report that men with a history of asthma were less likely than those without it to develop lethal prostate cancer.
Johns Hopkins Medicine has created and launched Managing Cancer at Work, a new and novel health benefit program offered free of charge for its more than 42,000 combined full-time equivalent employees. Developed by a team of Johns Hopkins Medicine staff members, several of whom are also cancer survivors, the program is designed to aid employees who are at risk for cancer, have cancer, or are caring for someone with the disease. It offers information and guidance as well to supervisors about supporting workers who are managing employees with the disease.
Early data in a preliminary human study show that an experimental immune system drug is generally safe and well tolerated in women with metastatic, triple-negative breast cancer, a persistently difficult form of the disease to treat.
A study by Johns Hopkins scientists strongly suggests that sequencing tumor genomes for clues to genetic changes might misdirect treatment in nearly half of all patients unless it is compared first to a genetic readout of their noncancerous tissue.
A new genomic analysis of tissue from patients with prostate cancer has added more evidence that cells within metastases from such tumors can migrate to other body parts and form new sites of spread on their own.
Lung diseases like emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis are common among people with malfunctioning telomeres, the “caps” or ends of chromosomes. Now, researchers from Johns Hopkins say they have discovered what goes wrong and why.
Both patients and physicians may benefit from a “work flow” system developed at military medical facilities and tested at a Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center clinic, according to results of an efficiency study.
A six-hour PBS documentary series about the story of cancer, including research and treatment, billed by its producers as one of the most comprehensive of its kind yet made, will premiere nationwide March 30, 31 and April 1 featuring several patient stories and interviews conducted with clinicians and scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Working with cells taken from children with a very rare but ferocious form of brain cancer, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have identified a genetic pathway that acts as a master regulator of thousands of other genes and may spur cancer cell growth and resistance to anticancer treatment.
Robert Ivkov, Ph.D., an assistant professor of radiation oncology and molecular radiation sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a member of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, has been awarded a three-year grant totaling $1,005,000 by the Jayne Koskinas Ted Giovanis Foundation for Health and Policy to develop nanoparticles — microscopic objects too tiny to see with the naked eye — that may help the body’s immune system recognize breast cancer cells.
A new study by Johns Hopkins researchers links a well-known cell communication pathway called Notch to one of the most common — but overall still rare — brain tumors found in children.
Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., a pioneer in the field of vaccine therapy for pancreatic cancer, and an internationally-recognized leader in immunology research, has been appointed deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. Jaffee, the Dana and Albert “Cubby” Broccoli Professor of Oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, has been a faculty member there since 1992.
Mutations in a gene that helps repair damaged chromosome ends may make smokers — especially female smokers — more susceptible to emphysema, according to results of a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers.
Julie Brahmer, M.D., an expert in the use of immunotherapies totreat lung cancer, has been named director of the Thoracic Oncology Program at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. The medical oncologist will lead a multidisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, researchers and fellows developing new treatments for lung and esophageal cancer and mesothelioma. She will also oversee a $35 million investment in the program and the opening of the new Thoracic Center of Excellence at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, as well as laboratory research and clinical trials.
In a surprising paradox, the male hormone testosterone, generally thought to be a feeder of prostate cancer, has been found to suppress some advanced prostate cancers and also may reverse resistance to testosterone-blocking drugs used to treat prostate cancer.
Scientists from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have created a statistical model that measures the proportion of cancer incidence, across many tissue types, caused mainly by random mutations that occur when stem cells divide. By their measure, two-thirds of adult cancer incidence across tissues can be explained primarily by “bad luck,” when these random mutations occur in genes that can drive cancer growth, while the remaining third are due to environmental factors and inherited genes.
The risk of developing leukemia after radiation therapy or chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer remains very small, but it is twice as high as previously reported, according to results of a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Johns Hopkins researchers have developed a sugar-based molecular microcapsule that eliminates the toxicity of an anticancer agent developed a decade ago at Johns Hopkins, called 3-bromopyruvate, or 3BrPA, in studies of mice with implants of human pancreatic cancer tissue. The encapsulated drug packed a potent anticancer punch, stopping the progression of tumors in the mice, but without the usual toxic effects.
Researchers from Johns Hopkins have found that dense mats of interacting bacteria, called biofilms, were present in the majority of cancers and polyps, particularly those on the right side of the colon. The presence of these bacterial bunches, they say, may represent an increased risk for colon cancer and could form the basis of new diagnostic tests.
Johns Hopkins researchers report that their test of an interventional X-ray guidance device approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2013 has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure of patients undergoing intra-arterial therapy (IAT) for liver cancer.
After mining the genetic records of thousands of breast cancer patients, researchers from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have identified a gene whose presence may explain why some breast cancers are resistant to tamoxifen, a widely used hormone treatment generally used after surgery, radiation and other chemotherapy.
Patients who receive chemotherapy and radiation after surgery for gastric cancer appear to have better survival rates than those who had surgery followed by only chemotherapy, according to results of a look-back study of more than 500 people by Johns Hopkins scientists.
When choosing a cancer surgeon, patients are more likely to prefer surgeons with specialized training and lots of experience far more than those who practice in a convenient location or were recommended by a friend, according to results of a new survey reported in the November issue of the Annals of Surgical Oncology.
A urine-based test for early detection and monitoring of bladder cancer and a plan to develop nanoparticles to deliver chemotherapy drugs to bladder tissue are among the first round of projects awarded research grants by the Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute.
An evening of opera with special guest Marilyn Horne, iconic American opera singer, featuring performances by soprano Colleen Daly and tenor Rolando Sanz with direction and musical accompaniment by James Harp to benefit the Model Lyric Performing Arts Center and the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. A multi-course menu with wine pairing will be prepared by Pazo, a Baltimore Harbor East southern Italian restaurant. Valet parking is included.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC) has awarded the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center’s Breast Cancer Program a $1.7 million grant over five years to fund educational programs, enhance support and increase awareness for young women diagnosed with breast cancer.
Five bladder cancer experts will be awarded research grants totaling $250,000 from the Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute on Oct. 15. The grant awards will be the centerpiece of a day-long board meeting. The event will culminate with the unveiling of a ceremonial plaque marking the establishment of the new institute that was made possible with a landmark gift from Baltimore-area commercial real estate developer Erwin Greenberg and his wife, Stephanie Cooper Greenberg.
Johns Hopkins scientists have shown a strong association between tobacco use or exposure and infection with oral human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), the sexually transmitted virus responsible for mouth and throat cancers worldwide. The numbers of such cancers have increased 225 percent in the United States over the past two decades.
Johns Hopkins and other cancer researchers report that a very short course of a chemotherapy drug, called cyclophosphamide, not only can prevent a life-threatening immune response in some bone marrow transplant recipients, but also can eliminate such patients’ need for the usual six months of immune suppression medicines commonly prescribed to prevent severe forms of this immune response. Patients receive cyclophosphamide for two days after their bone marrow transplant, in addition to two other chemotherapy drugs given before the transplant.
In an analysis of genetic information among more than 87,000 men, a global team of scientists says it has found 23 new genetic variants — common differences in the genetic code — that increase a man’s risk for prostate cancer. The so-called meta-analysis, believed to be the largest of its kind, has revealed once hidden mutations among men in a broad array of ethnic groups comprising men of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry.
Prostate cancer patients whose tumors contain a shortened receptor called AR-V7 are less likely to respond to two widely used drugs for metastatic prostate cancer, according to results of a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins’ Kimmel Cancer Center and Brady Urological Institute. If large-scale studies validate the findings, the investigators say men with detectable blood levels of AR-V7 should avoid these two drugs and instead take other medicines to treat their prostate cancer. A report on the work is described online Sept. 3 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Breast cancer cells can lay the groundwork for their own spread throughout the body by coaxing cells within lymphatic vessels to send out tumor-welcoming signals, according to a new report by Johns Hopkins scientists.
A modified version of the Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) bacterium can produce a strong and precisely targeted anti-tumor response in rats, dogs and now humans, according to a new report from Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers.
A triple therapy for glioblastoma, including two types of immunotherapy and targeted radiation, has significantly prolonged the survival of mice with these brain cancers, according to a new report by scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
The Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center has been awarded three Telly Awards for two educational videos on pediatric and pancreatic cancers.
Physicians at Johns Hopkins have developed blood and saliva tests that help accurately predict recurrences of HPV-linked oral cancers in a substantial number of patients. The tests screen for DNA fragments of the human papillomavirus (HPV) shed from cancer cells lingering in the mouth or other parts of the body. A description of the development is published in the July 31 issue of JAMA Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery.
Cancer’s no game, but researchers at Johns Hopkins are borrowing ideas from evolutionary game theory to learn how cells cooperate within a tumor to gather energy. Their experiments, they say, could identify the ideal time to disrupt metastatic cancer cell cooperation and make a tumor more vulnerable to anti-cancer drugs.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.
Cancer clinicians and a chaplain at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed a new tool to help doctors, nurses and other health care providers talk to dying patients and families who are, literally, praying for a miracle.
A compound in saliva, along with common proteins in blood and muscle, may protect human cells from powerful toxins in tea, coffee and liquid smoke flavoring, according to results of a new study led by investigators at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Baltimore-area commercial real estate developer Erwin L. Greenberg and his wife Stephanie Cooper Greenberg have pledged a $15 million gift to create the Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute. Their gift is part of a $45 million co-investment with Johns Hopkins University, which will draw on the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center’s multidisciplinary research teams, and will include faculty from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine’s Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, the Brady Urologic Institute, and the Departments of Pathology and Surgery.
Officials at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center today announced receipt of a $10 million gift from Under Armour Inc. to fund breast cancer, breast health support programs and a women’s wellness center.
The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins will use a $65 million gift toward the construction of a new patient care building that will be named for the late Albert P. “Skip” Viragh, Jr., a Maryland mutual fund investment leader and philanthropist. A pancreas cancer patient treated at Johns Hopkins, Mr. Viragh died of the disease in 2003 at age 62.
Men who show signs of chronic inflammation in non-cancerous prostate tissue may have nearly twice the risk of actually having prostate cancer than those with no inflammation, according to results of a new study led by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators report they have designed a blood test that accurately detects the presence of advanced breast cancer and also holds promise for precisely monitoring response to cancer treatment.
In experiments with mice, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have identified an enzyme involved in the regulation of immune system T cells that could be a useful target in treating asthma and boosting the effects of certain cancer therapies.
The following announcements are related to awards that have been presented during the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2014, held in San Diego April 5-9, to researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Research in mice and human cell lines has identified an experimental compound dubbed TTT-3002 as potentially one of the most potent drugs available to block genetic mutations in cancer cells blamed for some forms of treatment-resistant leukemia.
In a series of studies involving 140 American men and women with liver tumors, researchers at Johns Hopkins have used specialized 3-D MRI scans to precisely measure living and dying tumor tissue to quickly show whether highly toxic chemotherapy – delivered directly through a tumor’s blood supply – is working.
An experimental drug aimed at restoring the immune system's ability to spot and attack cancer halted cancer progression or shrank tumors in patients with advanced melanoma, according to a multisite, early-phase clinical trial at Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and 11 other institutions. All patients had experienced disease progression despite prior systemic therapies, and most had received two or more prior treatments.
Certain fragments of DNA shed by tumors into the bloodstream can potentially be used to non-invasively screen for early-stage cancers, monitor responses to treatment and help explain why some cancers are resistant to therapies, according to results of an international study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators.
In a review article published Feb. 14 in The Lancet Oncology, Johns Hopkins experts identify three major sources of high cancer costs and argue that cancer doctors can likely reduce them without harm to patients. The cost-cutting proposals call for changes in routine clinical practice involved in end-of-life care, medical imaging and drug pricing.
Preliminary results of a small clinical trial show that a vaccine used to treat women with high-grade precancerous cervical lesions triggers an immune cell response within the damaged tissue itself. The Johns Hopkins scientists who conducted the trial said the finding is significant because measuring immune system responses directly in the lesions may be a more accurate way to evaluate so-called "therapeutic" vaccines than by the conventional means of blood analysis.
Investigators at Johns Hopkins report they have developed human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) capable of repairing damaged retinal vascular tissue in mice. The stem cells, derived from human umbilical cord-blood and coaxed into an embryonic-like state, were grown without the conventional use of viruses, which can mutate genes and initiate cancers, according to the scientists. Their safer method of growing the cells has drawn increased support among scientists, they say, and paves the way for a stem cell bank of cord-blood derived iPSCs to advance regenerative medicine research.
In laboratory experiments conducted on human cell lines at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, scientists have shown that people carrying certain mutations in two hereditary cancer genes, BRCA2 and PALB2, may have a higher than usual susceptibility to DNA damage caused by a byproduct of alcohol, called acetaldehyde.
Allegheny Health Network and Johns Hopkins Medicine announced today that they have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to seek to establish a formal affiliation between Allegheny and the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center, for clinical collaborations, medical education, and a broad range of cancer research initiatives. Details of an initial five-year affiliation outlined in the MOU are expected to be finalized within the next few months, officials of the institutions say.
Johns Hopkins scientists say a previously known but little studied chemical compound targets and shuts down a common cancer process. In studies of laboratory-grown human tumor cell lines, the drug disrupted tumor cell division and prevented growth of advanced cancer cells.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center will receive $90 million in new funding as part of a $540 million gift from Ludwig Cancer Research, on behalf of its founder Daniel K. Ludwig, to six U.S. institutions. The new award is among the largest for a single private gift to cancer research.
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators have genetically engineered a new mouse that mimics a common form of leukemia in humans. Studying the model could lead to new understanding of the disease, they say.
Both real and sham weekly acupuncture treatments eased hot flashes and other side effects of anticancer drug treatment in a small, preliminary study of breast cancer patients, Baltimore researchers have found.
Results of a Johns Hopkins study may explain why a chemotherapy drug called cyclophosphamide prevents graft-versus-host (GVHD) disease in people who receive bone marrow transplants. The experiments point to an immune system cell that evades the toxic effects of cyclophosphamide and protects patients from a lethal form of GVHD.
A Johns Hopkins undergraduate biomedical engineering student team that devised a two-part system to improve the way life-saving shocks are delivered to hearts earned first-prize in the undergraduate division of a national Collegiate Inventors Competition. In the graduate-level competition, Isaac Kinde, a Johns Hopkins medical student, received third-place honors for developing a test to detect ovarian and endometrial cancers as part of a team at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Investigators at Johns Hopkins have found a known genetic pathway to be active in many difficult-to-treat pediatric brain tumors called low-grade gliomas, potentially offering a new target for the treatment of these cancers.
Like the plastic caps at the end of shoelaces, telomeres protect -- in their case -- the interior-gene containing parts of chromosomes that carry a cell's instructional material. Cancer cells are known to have short telomeres, but just how short they are from cancer cell to cancer cell may be a determining factor in a prostate cancer patient's prognosis, according to a study led by Johns Hopkins scientists.
Working with mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered that weeks of treatment with a repurposed FDA-approved drug halted the growth of — and ultimately left no detectable trace of — brain tumor cells taken from adult human patients.
Memorial Sloane-Kettering Cancer Center has recognized Duojia “DJ” Pan, Ph.D., as one of this year’s winners of the Paul Marks Prize for Cancer Research, an award for those aged 45 years or younger who are furthering our understanding of cancer.
Working with cells in test tubes and in mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins have discovered that a chemical commonly used as a dog food preservative may prevent the kind of painful nerve damage found in the hands and feet of four out of five cancer patients taking the chemotherapy drug Taxol.
Johns Hopkins scientists have identified a molecular marker called “Mig 6” that appears to accurately predict longer survival -- up to two years -- among patients prescribed two of the most widely used drugs in a class of anticancer agents called EGFR inhibitors.
Genomic sequencing experts at Johns Hopkins partnered with pharmacologists at Stony Brook University to reveal a striking mutational signature of upper urinary tract cancers caused by aristolochic acid, a plant compound contained in herbal remedies used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments such as arthritis, gout and inflammation. Their discovery is described in the Aug. 7 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
Johns Hopkins cancer scientists have discovered that a little-described gene known as FAM190A plays a subtle but critical role in regulating the normal cell division process known as mitosis, and the scientists’ research suggests that mutations in the gene may contribute to commonly found chromosomal instability in cancer.
An anonymous donor has given $500,000 to conduct large-scale clinical trials and laboratory research on the “PapGene” test, a genomic-based screening test that detects ovarian and endometrial cancers in cervical fluid.
Spouses and long-term partners of patients with mouth and throat cancers related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) appear to have no increased prevalence of oral HPV infections, according to results of a multicenter, pilot study led by Johns Hopkins investigators. The study’s results suggest that long-term couples need not change their sexual practices, say the scientists.
Pioneering research led by Johns Hopkins scientists on the use of partially matched bone marrow transplants to wipe out sickle cell disease has been selected as one of the Top 10 Clinical Research Achievements of 2012 by the Clinical Research Forum. The success of a preliminary clinical trial of the so-called haploidentical transplants has the potential to bring curative transplants to a majority of sickle cell patients who need them, eliminating painful and debilitating symptoms and the need for a lifetime of pain medications and blood transfusions.
Honorees at AACR Annual Meeting 2013 include Johns Hopkins cancer scientists.
In a laboratory study pairing food chemistry and cancer biology, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center tested the potentially harmful effect of foods and flavorings on the DNA of cells. They found that liquid smoke flavoring, black and green teas and coffee activated the highest levels of a well-known cancer-linked gene called p53.
On March 18, YouTube sensation and Disney recording artist Savannah Outen will sing her newly-recorded song “Brave and True” to 16 year-old Bo Oliver, a cancer patient at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Bert Vogelstein, M.D., co-director of the Ludwig Center at Johns Hopkins and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator has been awarded the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences. He was selected for his landmark work in cancer genomics and tumor suppressor genes.
In laboratory studies, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed a way to personalize chemotherapy drug selection for cancer patients by using cell lines created from their own tumors.
In a genome-wide analysis of 13 metastatic prostate cancers, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center found consistent epigenetic “signatures” across all metastatic tumors in each patient. The discovery of the stable, epigenetic “marks” that sit on the nuclear DNA of cancer cells and alter gene expression, defies a prevailing belief that the marks vary so much within each individual’s widespread cancers that they have little or no value as targets for therapy or as biomarkers for treatment response and predicting disease severity.
Using cervical fluid obtained during routine Pap tests, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed a test to detect ovarian and endometrial cancers. In a pilot study, the “PapGene” test, which relies on genomic sequencing of cancer-specific mutations, accurately detected all 24 (100 percent) endometrial cancers and nine of 22 (41 percent) ovarian cancers. Results of the experiments are published in the Jan. 9 issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine.
A new drug for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) marked by a specific type of genetic mutation has shown surprising promise in a Phase II clinical trial. In more than a third of participants, the leukemia was completely cleared from the bone marrow, and as a result, many of these patients were able to undergo potentially curative bone marrow transplants, according to investigators at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and nine other academic medical centers around the world. Many of the participants who did well with the new drug, quizartinib or AC220, had failed to respond to prior therapies.
A new survey shows that about one in four physicians uses social media daily or multiple times a day to scan or explore medical information, and 14 percent use social media each day to contribute new information, according to an oncologist at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
In a genome sequencing study of 74 neuroblastoma tumors in children, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) found that patients with changes in two genes, ARID1A and ARID1B, survive only a quarter as long as patients without the changes. The discovery could eventually lead to early identification of patients with aggressive neuroblastomas who may need additional treatments.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have combined the ability to detect cancer DNA in the blood with genome sequencing technology in a test that could be used to screen for cancers, monitor cancer patients for recurrence and find residual cancer left after surgery.
Storing music and photos on distant computers via “cloud” technology is nothing new. But Johns Hopkins researchers are now using this tactic to collect detailed information from thousands of cancer cell samples. The goal is to help doctors make better predictions about how a patient’s illness will progress and what type of treatment will be most effective.
Using advanced microscopes equipped with tissue-penetrating laser light, cancer imaging experts at Johns Hopkins have developed a promising new way to accurately analyze the distinctive patterns of ultra-thin collagen fibers in breast tumor tissue samples and to help tell if the cancer has spread.
In an editorial appearing in the October 25 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, medical oncologists at Johns Hopkins and Brigham and Women's hospitals provide a four-point plan for integrating palliative care discussions throughout the treatment of patients with terminal illnesses. They write that better planning and communication may improve symptoms, stress, and survival time, as well as lower health care costs at the end of life.
Web-based program will be a resource for men who opt for proactive surveillance
A new study from Johns Hopkins researchers suggests that the lethal spread of breast cancer is as dependent on a tumor’s protein-rich environment as on genetic changes inside tumor cells.
After screening more than 2,300 drugs for their ability to halt the growth of breast cancer cells, Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered that the anti-HIV drug nelfinavir slows the progress of HER2-positive tumor cells, even if they are resistant to other breast cancer drugs.
In a preliminary clinical trial, investigators at Johns Hopkins have shown that even partially-matched bone marrow transplants can eliminate sickle cell disease in some patients, ridding them of painful and debilitating symptoms, and the need for a lifetime of pain medications and blood transfusions. The researchers say the use of such marrow could potentially help make bone marrow transplants accessible to a majority of sickle cell patients who need them.
Scientists have completed a comprehensive map of genetic mutations linked to an aggressive and lethal type of lung cancer. Among the errors found in small cell lung cancers, the team of scientists, including those at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, found an alteration in a gene called SOX2 associated with early embryonic development.
Their findings may eventually be used to predict which cancers are likely to return
Johns Hopkins scientists have developed a reliable method to turn the clock back on blood cells, restoring them to a primitive stem cell state from which they can then develop into any other type of cell in the body.
Two Johns Hopkins scientists are among the first recipients of grants geared to answer “Provocative Questions” in cancer research, a new project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Cynthia Sears, M.D., and Peter Searson, Ph.D., will receive more than $500,000 combined in the first of five years of funding.
"Theranostic' Imaging Offers Means of Killing Prostate Cancer Cells Without Harming Other Healthy ...
Experimenting with human prostate cancer cells and mice, cancer imaging experts at Johns Hopkins say they have developed a method for finding and killing malignant cells while sparing healthy ones.
On Sunday October 14th, Paul Reed Smith Guitars will again host the acclaimed "One Night One Show One Cause" concert featuring JOURNEY at the Modell Center for the Performing Arts at the Lyric Opera House in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The concert benefits the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
People with serious mental illness —schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and disabling depression — are 2.6 times more likely to develop cancer than the general population, new Johns Hopkins research suggests.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, working with Danish researchers, have developed a novel anticancer drug designed to travel -- undetected by normal cells -- through the bloodstream until activated by specific cancer proteins. The drug, made from a weedlike plant, has been shown to destroy cancers and their direct blood supplies, acting like a “molecular grenade,” and sparing healthy blood vessels and tissues.
Targeted cancer cell therapies using man-made proteins dramatically shrink many tumors in the first few months of treatment, but new research from Johns Hopkins scientists finds why the cells all too often become resistant, the treatment stops working, and the disease returns.
Two clinical trials led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers in collaboration with other medical centers, testing experimental drugs aimed at restoring the immune system’s ability to spot and attack cancer, have shown promising early results in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and kidney cancer. More than 500 patients were treated in the studies of two drugs that target the same immune-suppressive pathway, and the investigators say there is enough evidence to support wider testing in larger groups of patients.
Recent recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) advising elimination of routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer in healthy men are likely to encounter serious pushback from primary care physicians, according to results of a survey by Johns Hopkins investigators.
Johns Hopkins and Yale scientists have found that melanoma cells use a cloaking protein to hide from immune cells poised to attack the cancer. Nearly 40 percent of their sampling of melanoma tissues contained the B7-H1 protein, also called PD-L1, and scientists say it could be used as a target for new therapies.
A team of scientists led by Johns Hopkins researchers have found that more than four in 10 people considered at high risk for hereditary pancreatic cancer have small pancreatic lesions long before they have any symptoms of the deadly disease.
Timothy M. Pawlik, M.D., M.P.H., head of the Johns Hopkins Liver Tumor Center, has been appointed the new director of surgical oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Pawlik succeeds Richard Schulick, M.D., who is leaving Hopkins to head the surgery department at the University of Colorado.
In addition, the Hopkins Department of Surgery has created two new sections within the department: the hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery section, and the gastrointestinal oncology, breast, melanoma, sarcoma and endocrine section. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgeon Christopher L. Wolfgang, M.D., Ph.D., will lead the hepatobiliary unit while Nita Ahuja, M.D., a surgical oncologist with expertise in sarcomas and colorectal cancers, will lead the gastrointestinal oncology, breast, melanoma, sarcoma and endocrine section.
These news tips are based on abstracts and presentations by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists scheduled to present their work at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012, March 31 – April 4, in Chicago, Il.
With sharp declines in the cost of whole genome sequencing, the day of accurately deciphering disease risk based on an individual’s genome may seem at hand. But a study involving data of thousands of identical twins by Johns Hopkins investigators finds that genomic fortune-telling fails to provide informative guidance to most people about their risk for most common diseases, and warns against complacency born of negative genome test results.
Experimenting with cells in culture, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have breathed possible new life into two drugs once considered too toxic for human cancer treatment. The drugs, azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC), are epigenetic-targeted drugs and work to correct cancer-causing alterations that modify DNA.
Patrick C. Walsh, M.D., a renowned Johns Hopkins urologist who pioneered work in the understanding and treatment of prostate cancer, was honored with the American Academy of Arts and Sciences’ prestigious Francis Amory Prize on March 14. Given by the Academy since 1940, the prize recognizes major advances in reproductive biology and medical care.
Johns Hopkins scientists have published laboratory data refuting studies that suggest blood vessels that form within brain cancers are largely made up of cancer cells. The theory of cancer-based blood vessels calls into question the use and value of anticancer drugs that target these blood vessels, including bevacizumab (Avastin).
Using precise information about an individual’s genetic makeup is becoming increasingly routine for developing tailored treatments for breast, lung, colon and other cancers. But techniques used to identify meaningful gene mutations depend on analyzing sequences of both normal and mutant DNA in tumor samples, a process that can yield ambiguous results. Now, a team of Johns Hopkins researchers says it has developed an easy-to-use online computer software application that can clear up any confusion faster and cheaper than other methods currently used to do the job.
After a 20-year quest to find a genetic driver for prostate cancer that strikes men at younger ages and runs in families, researchers have identified a rare, inherited mutation linked to a significantly higher risk of the disease.
Cancer cells have been long known to have a “sweet tooth,” using vast amounts of glucose for energy and for building blocks for cell replication.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have shown that DNA changes in a gene that drives the growth of a form of lung cancer can make the cancer’s cells resistant to cancer drugs. The findings show that some classes of drugs won’t work, and certain types of so-called kinase inhibitors like erlotinib—may be the most effective at treating non-small cell lung cancers with those DNA changes.
Five Johns Hopkins students have been selected as finalists in a competition to find new ways to cure metastatic cancer. The five, whose ideas were chosen from among 44 presentations, will compete on January 13, 2012, from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., for the top prize of $20,000 and a chance to pursue their research proposals.
Looking for ways to halt the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells, scientists at Johns Hopkins have found that a new class of drugs, called PARP inhibitors, may block the ability of pre-leukemic cells to repair broken bits of their own DNA, causing these cells to self-destruct. Results of their experiments, expected to be presented at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology in San Diego, Dec. 12, have already prompted clinical trials of the drugs in patients with aggressive pre-leukemic conditions, who have few treatment options.
People within the Johns Hopkins community have long known that Lillie Shockney is an amazing nurse. Now she’s got the moniker to prove it. Shockney, administrative director of the Johns Hopkins Avon Breast Center since 1997, was selected as this year’s “Amazing Nurse” in a national contest to celebrate and reward nurses’ value, sponsored by the Johnson & Johnson Campaign for Nursing’s Future. Shockney’s work with breast cancer patients was recognized by Johnson & Johnson during the 2011 CNN Heroes: An All-Star Tribute show in Los Angeles on December 11.
Working with human breast cells, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have shown how the inactivation of a single copy of the breast cancer gene BRCA1 leaves breast cells vulnerable to cancer by reducing their ability to repair DNA damage, causing genetic instability. An inherited mutation in BRCA1 is the leading risk factor for hereditary breast cancer, prompting preventive mastectomies or close monitoring. The new findings may aid development of drugs to prevent hereditary breast cancer and tools to identify women who benefit most from prophylactic treatments.
Having both ovaries removed before age 45 is strongly associated with low-bone mineral density and arthritis in later years, according to a new study by Johns Hopkins oncologists and epidemiologists. The analysis covered several thousand women who took part in a U.S. government-sponsored, multiyear national health study, and excluded women whose ovaries were removed due to cancer.
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists report that sharp rises in levels of reactive oxygen molecules, and the inflammation that results, trigger biochemical changes that silence genes in a pattern often seen in cancer cells. The researchers confirmed this gene-silencing effect in mice that develop inflammation-induced colon cancer.
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have surveyed the DNA in four common types of pancreatic cysts, and have determined that each type bears a distinct pattern of gene mutations. Pancreatic cysts are present in about two percent of U.S. adults, and can, in some cases, require surgical removal and microscopic analysis to determine their type and likelihood of turning cancerous.
A new type of therapy aimed at reversing the gene-silencing that promotes cancer-cell growth has shown promising results in a small clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. Forty-five late-stage lung cancer patients who received a two-drug combination designed to restore anti-cancer gene activity survived about two months longer than the expected four months, and two patients showed complete or near-complete responses despite having progressive disease after multiple standard therapies.
In dozens of experiments in mice and in human cancer cells, a team of Johns Hopkins scientists has closely tied production of a cancer-causing protein called TWIST to the development of estrogen resistance in women with breast cancer. Because estrogen fuels much breast cancer growth, such resistance — in which cancers go from estrogen positive to estrogen negative status — can sabotage anticancer drugs that work to block estrogen and prevent disease recurrence after surgery. Estrogen resistance develops in over half of women taking estrogen-blocking medications, such as tamoxifen, and exists from the start in many other women.
The spread of breast cancer is responsible for more than 90 percent of breast cancer deaths. Now, the process by which it spreads -- or metastasizes -- has been unraveled by researchers at Johns Hopkins.
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists report that sharp rises in levels of reactive oxygen molecules, and the inflammation that results, trigger biochemical changes that silence genes in a pattern often seen in cancer cells. The researchers confirmed this gene-silencing effect in mice that develop inflammation-induced colon cancer.
A Johns Hopkins breast cancer researcher is the recipient of a $50,000 award designed to encourage rapid translation of her basic research on biomarkers into a commercially available test that could predict the best treatment options for some women with breast cancer.
Delivering anticancer drugs into breast ducts via the nipple is highly effective in animal models of early breast cancer, and has no major side effects in human patients, according to a report by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers in Science Translational Medicine on Oct. 26. The results of the study are expected to lead to more advanced clinical trials of so-called intraductal treatment for early breast cancer.
Doctors at Johns Hopkins have shown that during an increasingly popular type of breast-reconstruction surgery, they can safely preserve the internal mammary artery, in case it is needed for future cardiac surgery.
"Too busy," and "too complicated." These are the typical excuses one might expect when medical professionals are asked why they fail to use online error-reporting systems designed to improve patient safety and the quality of care. But Johns Hopkins investigators found instead that the most common reason among radiation oncologists was fear of getting into trouble and embarrassment.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has chosen Johns Hopkins as one of five centers to participate in a coordinated effort to develop a catalog of proteins created by cancer cells. The information, which will be made available to other researchers, could be used to develop new ways to detect cancer and treat the disease
A combination of an oral drug, called sorafenib, and a method for injecting microbeads of chemotherapy directly into tumors has been proven safe for liver cancer patients and may improve outcomes for those who have these fast-growing, deadly tumors whose numbers are on the rise in the United States.
A $30 million gift from the Commonwealth Foundation for Cancer Research has enabled the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center to establish a Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine. The gift from the Richmond, VA- based foundation, will be used to support research and the development of new technologies that pinpoint the novel genetic characteristics of each patient’s cancer. Hopkins scientists and officials say this will speed the development of therapies based on an individual cancer patient’s genetic “fingerprint.”
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have completed a comprehensive map of genetic mutations occurring in the second-most common form of brain cancer, oligodendroglioma. The findings, reported in the Aug. 4 issue of Science, also appear to reveal the biological cause of the tumors, they say.
A combination of several well-known safety procedures could greatly reduce patient-harming errors in the use of radiation to treat cancer, according to a new study led by Johns Hopkins researchers.
Powerful new technologies that zoom in on the connections between human genes and diseases have illuminated the landscape of cancer, singling out changes in tumor DNA that drive the development of certain types of malignancies such as melanoma or ovarian cancer.
Now several major biomedical centers have collaborated to shine a light on head and neck squamous cell cancer. Their large-scale analysis has revealed a surprising new set of mutations involved in this understudied disease.
In back-to-back papers published online July 28 in Science, researchers from the Broad Institute, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have confirmed genetic abnormalities previously suspected in head and neck cancer, including defects in the tumor suppressor gene known as p53. But the two teams also found mutations in the NOTCH family of genes, suggesting their role as regulators of an important stage in cell development may be impaired.
Johns Hopkins scientists have developed a gene-based test to distinguish harmless from precancerous pancreatic cysts. The test may eventually help some patients avoid needless surgery to remove the harmless variety. A report on the development is published in the July 20 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
The investigators estimate that fluid-filled cysts are identified in more than a million patients each year, most of whom have undergone CT or MRI scans to evaluate non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain and swelling.
Identifying a suitable donor for leukemia and lymphoma patients who need bone marrow transplants may be far easier now that results of two clinical trials show transplant results with half-matched bone marrow or umbilical cord blood are comparable to fully matched tissue, thanks in large part to the availability of effective antirejection drugs and special post-transplant chemotherapy. The finding means that nearly all patients in need of a transplant can find donors, according to Johns Hopkins scientists who participated in the trials.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have developed a technique that delivers gene therapy into human brain cancer cells using nanoparticles that can be freeze-dried and stored for up to three months prior to use.
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have provided more clues to one of the least understood phenomena in some cancers: why the “ends caps” of cellular DNA, called telomeres, lengthen instead of shorten. In a study published online June 30 in Science Express, the Johns Hopkins researchers say they have identified two genes that, when defective, may cause these telomere elongations.
A team led by Johns Hopkins researchers has found that a hereditary colon cancer syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), is associated with abnormally dense blood vessel growth in the skin lining the mouth.
Johns Hopkins researchers have found a likely explanation for the slow growth of the most common childhood brain tumor, pilocytic astrocytoma. Using tests on a new cell-based model of the tumor, they concluded that the initial process of tumor formation switches on a growth-braking tumor-suppressor gene, in a process similar to that seen in skin moles.
The oral antifungal drug itraconazole, most commonly used to treat nail fungus, may keep prostate cancer from worsening and delay the need for chemotherapy in men with advanced disease. Details of the finding, from a clinical trial led by Johns Hopkins experts, are scheduled for presentation on Saturday, June 4 at the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting (abstract #4532).
Peninsula Regional Medical Center (PRMC) in Salisbury, Md., is the latest health system to join the Johns Hopkins Clinical Research Network (JHCRN). Developed by the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (ICTR), JHCRN is designed to establish a network of academic and community-based clinical researchers who provide new opportunities for research collaborations and accelerate the transfer of new diagnostic, treatment and disease-prevention advances from the research arena to patient care.
An estimated four in 10 hospital websites in the United States publicize the use of robotic surgery, with the lion’s share touting its clinical superiority despite a lack of scientific evidence that robotic surgery is any better than conventional operations, a new Johns Hopkins study finds.
The five-hospital Inova Health System based in Northern Virginia has joined the Johns Hopkins Clinical Research Network (JHCRN). Developed by the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (ICTR), JHCRN is designed to bring together community-based clinical researchers to provide new opportunities for research collaborations and accelerate the transfer of new diagnostic, treatment, and disease-prevention advances from the research arena to patient care.
Johns Hopkins researchers have demonstrated that human liver cells derived from adult cells coaxed into an embryonic state can engraft and begin regenerating liver tissue in mice with chronic liver damage.
Hospitals and physician practices that form care-coordinating networks called "Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs)," under provisions of the new health-care law could reap cost-savings and other benefits. Experts at Johns Hopkins and the University of Pennsylvania warn, however, that such networks could potentially be designed to exclude minorities and widen disparities in health care.
Using human kidney cells and brain tissue from adult mice, Johns Hopkins scientists have uncovered the sequence of steps that makes normally stable DNA undergo the crucial chemical changes implicated in cancers, psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The process may also be involved in learning and memory, the researchers say.
A Johns Hopkins study of 769 men from across the United States recently diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer shows that forgoing immediate surgery to remove the tumor or radiation poses no added risk of death. Delaying treatment is fine, the results show, so long as the cancer’s progression and tumor growth are closely monitored through “active surveillance” and there is no dramatic worsening of the disease over time.
Johns Hopkins scientists have developed a simplified, cheaper, all-purpose method they say can be used by scientists around the globe to more safely turn blood cells into heart cells. The method is virus-free and produces heart cells that beat with nearly 100 percent efficiency, they claim.
Johns Hopkins scientists and their colleagues paired laboratory and epidemiologic data to find that men using the cardiac drug, digoxin, had a 24 percent lower risk for prostate cancer. The scientists say further research about the discovery may lead to use of the drug, or new ones that work the same way, to treat the cancer.
New evidence has emerged from studies in mice that short telomeres or “caps” at the ends of chromosomes may predispose people to age-related diabetes, according to Johns Hopkins scientists.
A colon cancer expert at Johns Hopkins says that a colonoscopy remains underused by Americans but remains the test of choice for preventing the number-two cancer killer overall.
Abnormal chromosomes have long been detected in children with leukemias and lymphomas, and now, research by Johns Hopkins scientists has linked such abnormalities with a molecular clock that controls the timing of a high-stakes genetic exchange inside dividing immune system cells.
Andrew Ewald, Ph.D., who studies how cells build organs and how these same cellular processes can contribute to breast cancer metastasis, will receive the American Association of Anatomists’ 2011 Morphological Sciences Award for his “outstanding contributions to the field of epithelial morphogenesis.” He will present an award lecture at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Sunday, Apr. 10, in Washington, D.C.
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have deciphered the genetic code for a type of pancreatic cancer called neuroendocrine or islet cell tumors. The work, described online in the Jan. 20 issue of Science Express, shows that patients whose tumors have certain coding "mistakes" live twice as long as those without them.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have discovered that nitroxoline, an antibiotic commonly used around the world to treat urinary tract infections, can slow or stop the growth of human breast and bladder cancer cells by blocking the formation of new blood vessels. The results, appearing in the Dec. 15 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, suggest that nitroxoline shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent.
Breast cancer patients are nearly 50 percent more likely to die of any cause if they also have diabetes, according to a comprehensive review of research conducted by Johns Hopkins physicians.
Lab studies show that combining drugs that target a variety of developmental cell signaling pathways may do a better job of killing deadly brain tumors than single drugs that target one pathway at a time, according to a new study by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers. The combined therapy approach apparently reduces tumor resistance to chemotherapy, they say.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have deciphered the genetic code for medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain cancer and a leading killer of children with cancer. The genetic "map" is believed to be the first reported of a pediatric cancer genome and is published online in the Dec. 16 issue of Science Express.
In a proof of principal study in mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins and the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) have shown that a set of genetic instructions encased in a nanoparticle can be used as an “ignition switch” to rev up gene activity that aids cancer detection and treatment.
A gene target for drug resistance, a triple-drug cocktail for triple negative breast cancer, and patients’ risk for carpal tunnel syndrome are among study highlights scheduled to be presented by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists during the 33rd Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 8-12.
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have identified a compound that could be used to starve cancers of their sugar-based building blocks. The compound, called a glutaminase inhibitor, has been tested on laboratory-cultured, sugar-hungry brain cancer cells and, the scientists say, may have the potential to be used for many types of primary brain tumors.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, University of Helsinki and Stanford University have developed a technique to keep normal and cancerous prostate tissue removed during surgery alive and functioning normally in the laboratory for up to a week.
Each time you check out your groceries at your local Safeway supermarket, you have a chance to help women in the fight against breast cancer.
During October, Safeway customers in Baltimore and throughout Maryland can donate $1 or more, which will be added to their order at checkout stands, as part of Safeway’s annual campaign to support breast cancer research at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Pancreatic cancer develops and spreads much more slowly than scientists have thought, according to new research from Johns Hopkins investigators. The finding indicates that there is a potentially broad window for diagnosis and prevention of the disease.
John Groopman, Ph.D., associate director of cancer prevention and control at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the Anna M. Baetjer Professor and Chair of the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, is the recipient of the Award for Excellence in Cancer Prevention Research from the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the Prevent Cancer Foundation.
Using a computer program, researchers from Johns Hopkins have predicted which changes in the DNA code may cause pancreatic cells to become cancerous and deadly. The investigators say the findings could lead to more focused studies on better ways to treat the disease, which has only a 5 percent survival rate five years after diagnosis.
After an international search, Vered Stearns, M.D., has been named Co-Director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center’s Breast Cancer Program.
A protein that pumps calcium out of cells also moonlights as a signal to get massive quantities of the stuff to flow in, according to Johns Hopkins scientists. Their discovery of this surprisingly opposite function, reported Oct. 1 in Cell, highlights the link between calcium and cancer and holds the promise of a new therapeutic target for certain breast cancers.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have identified two genes whose mutations appear to be linked to ovarian clear cell carcinoma, one of the most aggressive forms of ovarian cancer. Clear cell carcinoma is generally resistant to standard therapy.
Johns Hopkins researchers working on mice have discovered a protein that is a major target of a gene that, when mutated in humans, causes tumors to develop on nerves associated with hearing, as well as cataracts in the eyes.
Patients with a certain type of scleroderma may get cancer and scleroderma simultaneously, Johns Hopkins researchers have found, suggesting that in some diseases, autoimmunity and cancer may be linked.
Swim Across America (SAA), the national non-profit organization dedicated to raising money and awareness for cancer research, prevention and treatment through swimming-related events around the country, held its first swims in the Baltimore-area on Sunday, September 19 at 8 AM with an open water swim starting from the Waltjen Shedlick Farm in Gibson Island Harbor and a pool swim at the Meadowbrook Aquatic and Fitness Center in Mount Washington.
June 11, 2010 - Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center has been awarded the largest gift for pancreas cancer research in its history. The award was made possible by Albert P. “Skip” Viragh, Jr., a mutual fund leader, and a pancreas cancer patient treated at Johns Hopkins. He died of the disease at age 62.
Call for Submissions Guitar Art Benefit Showcase & Auction Daniel Stuelpnagel, Curator
The Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center continues for the 11th year with Paul Reed Smith Guitars for a national charity weekend October 2-4th to benefit the Living with Cancer Resource Program at Johns Hopkins. The Johns Hopkins’ Living with Cancer Resource Program offers patients, families and caregivers a variety of support groups, educational workshops and programs designed to teach patients and their families how to manage the realities of cancer - free of charge.
These news tips are based on abstracts and presentations by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, June 4-8, in Chicago.
Johns Hopkins Medicine and the University of Maryland Medical Center have joined forces to expand regional access to their prominent radiation oncology programs, and to provide cancer patients with state-of-the-art, comprehensive outpatient radiation therapy services at a conveniently located community practice in Howard County.
A national network of cancer researchers have identified a common set of molecular changes in some forms of the deadly brain tumor glioma that indicate a patient is likely to have a more favorable outcome.
Guide to News from Johns Hopkins Scientists at the American Association for Cancer Research Meeting
Thomas Kensler, Ph.D., professor in the Environmental Health Sciences and a renowned cancer researcher at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, received the 16th annual American Association for Cancer Research-American Cancer Society Award for Research Excellence in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention.
A protein discovered in fruit fly eyes has brought a Johns Hopkins team closer to understanding how the human heart and other organs automatically "right size" themselves, a piece of information that may hold clues to controlling cancer.
Information falsely attributed to Johns Hopkins called, "CANCER UPDATE FROM JOHN HOPKINS" describes properties of cancer cells and suggests ways of preventing cancer. Johns Hopkins did not publish the information, which often is an email attachment, nor do we endorse its contents.
Two-time breast cancer survivor and Johns Hopkins administrator, Lillie Shockney, RN, BS, MAS was inducted into the 25th Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame by the Maryland Commission for Women, during a ceremony on March 18.
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have found a set of "master switches" that keep adult blood-forming stem cells in their primitive state. Unlocking the switches' code may one day enable scientists to grow new blood cells for transplant into patients with cancer and other bone marrow disorders.
Working with mice, Johns Hopkins scientists who tested drugs intended to halt growth of brain cancer stem cells – a small population of cells within tumors that perpetuate cancer growth – conclude that blocking these cells may be somewhat effective, but more than one targeted drug attack may be needed to get the job done.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have used data from the whole genome sequencing of cancer patients to develop individualized blood tests they believe can help physicians tailor patients' treatments. The genome-based blood tests, believed to be the first of their kind, may be used to monitor tumor levels after therapy and determine cancer recurrence.
JOHNS HOPKINS RESEARCHERS SAY VACCINE APPEARS TO “MOP UP” LEUKEMIA CELLS GLEEVEC LEAVES BEHIND
Results of a preliminary study by scientists at the National Institutes of Health and Johns Hopkins show that "mini" stem cell transplantation may safely reverse severe sickle cell disease in adults.
Several leaders at the Johns Hopkins Avon Foundation Breast Center have issued a statement regarding the new mammography screening guidelines suggested by the United States Preventive Task Force Service.
JOHNS HOPKINS KIMMEL CANCER CENTER TO HOST VOLUNTEER CONCERT FOR PATIENTS & FAMILIES
TOP LOCAL ELECTED OFFICIALS HEADLINE LIST OF CELEBRITY BAGGERS AT SAFEWAY STORES THIS MONTH
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has awarded $10.4 million to Johns Hopkins and The University of Southern Califonia (USC) to decipher epigenetic marks in the cancer genome. The joint five-year grant is expected to help scientists develop drugs and tests that target epigenetic changes in cancer cells.
A committee of scientists led by Johns Hopkins investigators has published a new guide to the biology, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer in never-smokers, fortifying measures for what physicians have long known is a very different disease than in smokers.
The Hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in a preliminary study and case report describing positive responses to an experimental anticancer drug in a majority of people with advanced or metastatic basal cell skin cancers. One patient with the most common type of pediatric brain cancer, medulloblastoma, also showed tumor shrinkage.
Johns Hopkins scientists say they have figured out how bacteria that cause diarrhea may also be the culprit in some colon cancers. The investigators say that strains of the common Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) dupe immune system cells into permitting runaway colon tissue inflammation, a precursor for malignant growth.
Dietary sugar intake unlikely to have any impact, scientists caution
Donald Small, M.D., Ph.D., a nationally recognized leader in the research and treatment of childhood blood cancers, has been selected to head the Pediatric Oncology Division of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins.
Donates $35,000 to Johns Hopkins' Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center to Support Childhood Cancer Research
Cancer experts at Johns Hopkins say a study tracking 774 prostate cancer patients for a median of eight years has shown that a three-way combination of measurements has the best chance yet of predicting disease metastasis.
Phase II study showed effects of short-term green tea use on prostate cancer, Green tea reduced incidence, progression of prostate cancer, Right combination of polyphenols can slow prostate cancer growth
A TV industry- and celebrity-driven cancer research project has chosen scientists at Johns Hopkins for two of five multi-institutional “dream teams” financed by “Stand Up to Cancer “ grants totaling more than $6 million.
Bert Vogelstein, M.D., whose published studies of cancer genetics are the most highly cited works in the field, received this year’s American Society of Clinical Oncology “Science of Oncology” Award at the group’s annual meeting in Orland, Fla., on June 1.
The Baltimore Sun’s Health and Science Reporter Stephanie Desmon, author of an acclaimed six-part series about breast cancer clinical trials volunteers, will speak about the critical role of clinical medical trials at CISCRP’s AWARE for All program in Baltimore on May 9, 2009.
One cell…one initial set of genetic changes – that’s all it takes to begin a series of events that lead to metastatic cancer. Now, Johns Hopkins experts have tracked how the cancer process began in 33 men with prostate cancer who died of the disease. Culling information from autopsies, their study points to a set of genetic defects in a single cell that are different for each person’s cancer.
Annual scratch-off game benefitting children’s cancer research began on April 9, 2009
A buildup of chemical bonds on certain cancer-promoting genes, a process known as hypermethylation, is widely known to render cells cancerous by disrupting biological brakes on runaway growth. Now, Johns Hopkins scientists say the reverse process — demethylation — which wipes off those chemical bonds may also trigger more than half of all cancers.
LAB-ON-A-CHIP HOMES IN ON HOW CANCER CELLS BREAK FREE
Scientists at the Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have used "personalized genome" sequencing on an individual with a hereditary form of pancreatic cancer to locate a mutation in a gene called PALB2 that is responsible for initiating the disease.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Duke University Medical Center have linked mutations in two genes, IDH1 and IDH2, to nearly three-quarters of several of the most common types of brain cancers known as gliomas. Among the findings: people with certain tumors that carry these genetic alterations appear to
survive at least twice as long as those without them.
For Frank and Charmayne Dierker, breast cancer advocacy is a family affair. The Chestertown, Md., couple have made a $1 million gift to establish The Frank and Charmayne Dierker Endowed Leadership Fund in Breast Cancer at Johns Hopkins.
To decipher how cancer develops, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators say researchers must take a closer look at the packaging.
William G. Nelson, M.D., Ph.D., a member of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine faculty since 1992, has been selected to lead the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins.
A call to explore a broader use of HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccines and the validation of a simple oral screening test for HPV-caused oral cancers are reported in two studies by a Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigator.
Striking another blow against childhood cancer and its devastating effects on families, Giant Food executives presented a $1 million check on October 21 to Johns Hopkins for pediatric leukemia research.
Caring Collection Goal to Hit $1 Million Help the Caring Collection, Inc. reach their goal this year to raise $1 million to donate to Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and other institutions to purchase and update cancer research equipment.
Baltimore Hyundai Dealers Present $40,000 Donation to Benefit Pediatric Oncology at Johns Hopkins
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has reported results from its first comprehensive study which focused on the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma.
Virtually all cancers arise through mutation of genes that control cell growth. As the cancers grow, they shed fragments of DNA, biological evidence of these mutant genes, into the bloodstream. Now, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers have developed a novel test to measure tumor-derived DNA in the bloodstream.
The Johns Hopkins researchers who last year discovered a genetic cause of the inherited from of a deadly lung disease have now identified the same underlying cause in a majority of patients with the disease.
The complete genetic blueprint for lethal pancreatic cancer and brain cancer was deciphered by a team at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. The studies, led by the same group who completed maps of the breast cancer and colorectal cancer genomes in 2007, are reported in two articles in the Sept. 5, 2008, issue of Science Express.
Young adults without a family history of bowel disease are unlikely to develop adenomas, the colorectal polyps most likely to lead to cancer, according to new research directed by scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. The finding supports current cancer screening guidelines recommending adults in general undergo screening colonoscopies starting at age 50.
Men whose tumors recur after prostate cancer surgery are three times more likely to survive their disease long term if they undergo radiotherapy within two years of the recurrence. Surprisingly, survival benefits were best in men whose new tumors were growing fastest, according to results of a "look-back" study of 635 men by Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions researchers reported June 18 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Johns Hopkins Magazine (April 2008) features Lillie Shockney.
The following summaries are based on abstracts scheduled for presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, April 12 - 16 in San Diego, CA.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have uncovered clearly recognizable genetic alterations in tumors and tissue removed from patients with early-stage lung cancers that look like good predictors of which of these cancers are more likely to recur.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have teased out two distinct sets of risk factors for head and neck cancers, suggesting that there are two completely different kinds of the disease.
Second-grader Gavin loves to collect and study rocks and minerals. He hopes to be a geologist one day. Six-year-old Aaliyah loves to dance and sing along to her favorite Beyonce songs. Michael is in fourth grade and enjoys playing video games but hopes to soon get back to playing his favorite sports, football and basketball. And 10-year-old Justin dreams of becoming a left-handed pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles.
Patients cared for by hospitals with residents in training have a 17 percent less chance of dying after lung cancer surgery compared with patients undergoing surgery at non-teaching hospitals, according to results of a Johns Hopkins study published in the March issue of the Annals of Thoracic Surgery.
Johns Hopkins scientist Charles Drake is testing a unique molecule for its ability to awaken the immune system’s ability to recognize and destroy prostate cancer cells. This molecule is a key protein that acts as a sleep-aid to soldiering immune cells.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Brady Urological Institute, Wake Forest University and the Karolinska Institute in Sweden have identified an array of gene markers for hereditary prostate cancer that, along with family history for the disease, appear to raise risk to more than nine times that of men without such markers. The panel, gleaned from a study of more than 4,000 Swedes, found that these markers are common and could account for nearly half of the prostate cancer cases in this study. Results are published online in the Jan. 16 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Research linking HPV to head and neck cancers was identified by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) as one among six advances deemed most significant in clinical cancer research for 2007.
Gina Szymanski, M.S., R.N., nurse manager at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, has received the Linda Arenth Excellence in Cancer Nursing Management Award from the Oncology Nursing Society.
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have evidence that cancer stem cells for multiple myeloma share many properties with normal stem cells and have multiple ways of resisting chemotherapy and other treatments.
A morning gargle could someday be more than a breath freshener - it could spot head and neck cancer, say scientists at Johns Hopkins. Their new study of a mouth rinse that captures genetic signatures common to the disease holds promise for screening those at high risk, including heavy smokers and alcohol drinkers.
Johns Hopkins scientists have by chance discovered that a widely used means of illuminating cancer cells could undermine studies of the potential value of experimental anti-cancer drugs because the natural “pump” that cells use to clear out the chemical light source alters their chemistry.
One year after completing the first large-scale report sequencing breast and colon cancer genes, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have studied the vast majority of protein-coding genes which now suggest a landscape dominated by genes that each are mutated in relatively few cancers.
The Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center has received a $50,000 grant from the National Breast Cancer Foundation for providing free mammograms to underserved women in Baltimore. The grant is provided through Colgate-Palmolive and will be presented to the Kimmel Cancer Center on Wednesday at 12 noon, as part of their “String of Life” campaign to raise awareness of the importance of early detection and getting a yearly mammogram.
Martin D. Abeloff, M.D., the chief oncologist and director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center for the past 15 years, died Sept. 14 of leukemia. Abeloff, 65, was an international authority on the treatment of breast cancer.
A father-son research team working from separate laboratory benches across the country has discovered a new use for lasers — zapping viruses out of blood. The technique, which holds promise for disinfecting blood for transfusions, uses a low-power laser beam with a pulse lasting just fractions of a second.
A drug that shuts down a critical cell-signaling pathway in the most common and aggressive type of adult brain cancer successfully kills cancer stem cells thought to fuel tumor growth and help cancers evade drug and radiation therapy, a Johns Hopkins study shows.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have found a genetic signature for aggressive melanomas.
SHORT CHROMOSOMES PUT CANCER CELLS IN FORCED REST A Johns Hopkins team has stopped in its tracks a form of blood cancer in mice by engineering and inactivating an enzyme, telomerase, thereby shortening the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres.
People with a family history of pancreas cancer now have a way to accurately predict their chance of carrying a gene for hereditary pancreas cancer and their lifetime risk of developing the disease.
Opening Doors: Contemporary African American Academic Surgeons is a celebration of the contributions of African-American academic surgeons. It tells the stories of four pioneering African-American surgeons and educators, like those at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, who exemplify excellence in their fields and believe in continuing the journey of excellence through the education and mentoring of young African Americans pursuing medical careers.
Drugs play on output of genes linked to “cell-signaling” proteins Building on newly discovered genetic threads in the rich tapestry of biochemical signals that cause cancer, a Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center team has dramatically killed brain cancer cells by blocking those signals with a statin and an experimental antitumor drug.
The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins has been named the primary recipient of the 2006 grants from Curing Kids’ Cancer, the charity that raises money for leading edge pediatric cancer research through kids’ sports teams and school children. A $100,000 grant was given to Johns Hopkins for research into new targeted therapies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood cancer.
Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that women treated for ovarian cancer are at increased risk of a rapid and potentially fatal recurrence if their tumor cells have high levels of a binding protein that triggers abnormal growth and slows down cell death, both hallmarks of malignancy. “Now there’s the possibility that testing for NAC-1 protein in cancer tissue removed during surgery might identify women most at risk for recurrence and guide doctors and patients to greater vigilance and extended therapy,” said Ie-Ming Shih, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of pathology at Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Sildenafil and other “impotence drugs” that boost the production of a gassy chemical messenger to dilate blood vessels and produce an erection now also show promise in unmasking cancer cells so that the immune system can recognize and attack them, say scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
New Building to be Dedicated Monday, December 4 at 4:30 p.m. David H. Koch, philanthropist and executive vice president of the nation’s largest privately owned company, Koch Industries, Inc., has committed $20 million to support a new cancer research building on Johns Hopkins University’s East Baltimore medical campus.
Bacteria that can cause deadly infections in humans and animals have shown promise in treating cancer by “eating” tumors from the inside out. Now, two new studies at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have demonstrated that, combined with specially-packaged anti-cancer drugs, the bacterial therapy’s prospects for cancer eradication have dramatically improved. In mouse experiments reported in the November 24 issue of Science, the Hopkins researchers demonstrated that genetically-modified bacteria called Clostridium novyi-NT (C.novyi-NT) have a special taste for oxygen-starved environments much like those found in the core of cancer cell clusters.
A research team at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center is one of six in the nation to share in a $120 million gift from the Ludwig Fund, named for the late shipping tycoon Daniel K. Ludwig. Some $20 million will come to the newly-formed Ludwig Center at Johns Hopkins this year as well as a lifetime annual commitment of $2 million.
Combined chemotherapy and radiation after surgery for pancreatic cancer increases a patient’s chance of living longer, according to a Johns Hopkins study. Radiation oncologists Joseph Herman, M.D. and Michael Swartz, M.D. reviewed records from the past 12 years of 156 patients that received their surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have for the first time implicated the muscle protein myosin VI in the development of prostate cancer and its spread. In a series of lab studies with human prostate cancer cells, the Johns Hopkins scientists were surprised to find overproduction of myosin VI in both prostate tumor cells and precancerous lesions.
By slicing up bits of patient tumors and grafting them into mice, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center specialists have figured out how to accurately “test drive” chemotherapy drugs to learn in advance which drug treatments offer each individual pancreatic cancer patient the best therapeutic journey. Although “xenografting” with either cells or fresh tissue is already used widely to test cancer therapies, the Hopkins design is personalized to each patient who has relapsed after an initial course of chemotherapy.
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have discovered how taking the brakes off a “detox” gene causes chemotherapy resistance in a common form of lung cancer.
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have completed the first draft of the genetic code for breast and colon cancers. Their report, published online in the September 7 issue of Science Express, identifies close to 200 mutated genes, now linked to these cancers, most of which were not previously recognized as associated with tumor initiation, growth, spread or control.
The following studies by Johns Hopkins researchers describe two new potential targets for cancer drugs, one that takes aim at the beginning of the tumor growth process and origins of cancer cells and the other at the process of tumor spread. Reports on the work, published in the August 1 issue of Cancer Research, describe experiments with mice and cell cultures that could lead to new treatments for childhood brain tumors and adult prostate cancers.