International Health Seminar:
History of International Health and Development
Instructor: Randall Packard
322 Welch Medical Library
Time: MW 10:30-11:50
Place: Seminar Room, 3rd Floor Welch Medical Library
The course examines the history of western efforts to promote health and nutrition in the "developing world" from the beginnings of tropical medicine and colonial health services to more recent efforts at disease eradication, the development of alternative health delivery systems (basic health services, primary health care and selective primary health care); population programs, to child survival and global immunization programs. It will also examine the history of various international health and development organizations, including the Rockefeller Foundation, WHO, UNICEF and the World Bank. These developments will be examined within the wider context of colonial and post-colonial development in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. By doing so, the course will explore the various economic and political interests, as well as the cultural assumptions, that have shaped the development of ideas and practices associated with international health in "developing" countries.
Course Organization and Requirements
The seminar will meet twice a week on Monday and Wednesday from 10:30 to 11:50 pm and discuss the readings assigned for each session. Evaluation will be based on class participation and on a final take home final essay exam.
Students should purchase:
Judith Justice, Policies. Plans and People: Foreign Aid and Health Development
Other readings will be available on-line or in a packet that can be picked up at 308 Welch Medical Library.
January 22: Introduction
The Origins of International Health
January 27: Imperialism and The Origins of Tropical Medicine
John Farley, Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical Medicine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, chs. 2 and 3.
Simon Flexner, "Epidemiology and Recent Epidemics," Science, Vol. 50 (October 3, 1919), 313-318.
C. Reynaldo Ileto, "Cholera and the Origins of the American Sanitary Order on the Phillipines," in D. Arnold, Imperial Medicine and Indigenous Societies, New York: Manchester University Press. 1988.
Warwick Anderson, "Immunities of Empire: Race, Disease, and the New Tropical Medicine, 1900-1920" Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Spring 1996), 94-118. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/bhm/
January 29: The Work of Early International Health Organizations
Anne Marie Moulin, "The Pasteur Institutes Between the Two World Wars: The Transformation of the International Sanitary Order," in Paul Weindling, International Health Organizations and
Movements 1918-1939, Cambridge, 1995, 244-265.
Paul Weindling, "Social Medicine and the League of Nations Health Organization," in Weindling International Health Organizations and Movements, Cambridge, 1995, 134-153.
Anne-Emanuelle Birn, "No More Surprising than a Broken Pitcher," Maternal And Child Health in the Early Years of the Pan American Sanitation Bureau” Canadian Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vo. 19, No. 1, 2002, 17-46.
February 3: The Rockefeller Foundation’s International Health Board
R. Packard, and P. Gadhela, "A Land Filled with Mosquitoes: Fred L. Soper, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Anopheles Gambiae Invasion of Brazil," Medical Anthropology, Vol. 17, No. 3 (1997), 215-238.
John Farley, Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical Medicine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, ch. 5.
Anne-Emanuelle Birn, "Public Health Paradoxes: Science and Politics in the Rockefeller Foundations Hookworm Campaign in Mexico in the 1920s," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 9 (Nov 1999), 1197-1213. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
International Development and the Global Promotion of Health
February 5: WHO and the Global Eradication of Malaria
Sharma, V.P., and Mehrotra, K. N., (1986) "Malaria Resurgence in India: A Critical Study," Social Science and Medicine, 22, 835 845. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
Randall Packard, "No Other Logical Choice: Malaria Eradication and the Politics of International Health," Parassitologia, Vol. 40, No. 1-1 (June 1998), 217-230.
February 10: WHO and the Attack on Smallpox
Jack Hopkins, "Eradication of Smallpox: Organizational Learning and Innovation in International Health Administration," The Journal of Developing Areas, (April 1988), 321-22.
Perez Yekuteil, "Lessons from the Big Eradication Campaigns," World Health Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1981, 465- 490.
Paul Greenough, "Intimidation, Coercion, and Resistance in the Final Stages of the South Asian Smallpox Eradication Campaign, 1973-1975," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 5 (1995), 633-645. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
From Combatting Sickness to Promoting Health
February 12: Emerging Visions of Overpopulation and Underdevelopment
Peter Donaldson, "On the Origins of the United States Government International Population policy," Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Nov. 1990), 385-399. http://www.jstor.org/journals/00324728.html
Timothy Mitchell, "The Object of Development: America’s Egypt," in Jonathan Crush, Power of Development, Routledge, 1995, 129-157.
John Sharpless, "Population Science Private Foundations and Development: Aid: The Transformation of Demographic Knowledge in the United States,1945-1965," In Cooper and Packard, International Development and the Social Sciences, Berkeley, 1997, pp. 176-202.
February 17: Rethinking Family Planning
Sandra Lane, "From Population Control to Reproductive Health: An Emerging Policy Agenda," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 9 (1994), 993-1009. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
Caroline Bedsoe, "Fatoumatta Banja, and Allan Hill, “Reproductive Mishaps and Western Contraception," Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, 1998, 15-57. http://www.jstor.org/journals/00987921.html
February 19: The Politics of Primary Health Care
Socrates Litsios, "The Long and Difficult Road to Alma-Ata: A Personal Reflection," International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 32, No 4 (2002), 709-32.
M. Segall , "The Politics of Primary Health Care," IDS Bulletin, Vol. 14, (1983), 27–37.
L. Stone, "Primary Health Care for Whom: Village Perspectives from Nepal," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 3 (1986), 293-302. www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
February 24: PHC versus Selective PHC
J. A. Walsh and K. S. Warren, "Selective Primary Health Care: An Interim Strategy for Disease Control in Ddeveloping Countries, New England Journal of Medisine, Vol. 301 (1979), 967–974.
Ben Wisner, "Gobi versus PHC? Some Dangers of Selective Primary Health Care," Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 26, Issue 9 (1988), 963-969. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
W. Henry Mosler, "Is There a Middle Way? Categorical Programs for PHC," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 9 (1988), 907-908. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
The Return to the War Against Disease
February 26: UNICE, WHO, and the Global Immunization Programme
June Goodfield, A Chance to Live: The Global Campaign to Immunize the Worlds Children, New York, 1991, 25-65
March 3: World Bank, Economics and International Health
Joy A. de Beyer, Alexander S. Preker, and Richard G. A. Feachem, "The Role of the World Bank in International Health: Renewed Commitment and Partnership," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 2 (January 2000), 169-176. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
Kent Buse and Gill Walt, "Role conflict? The World Bank and the World's Health," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 2 (January 2000), 177-179. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
Enrico Pavignani, "Can the World Bank be an Effective Leader in International Health?," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 2 (January 2000, 181-182. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
Rama Baru and Amar Jessani, "The Role of the World Bank in International Health: Renewed Commitment and Partnership," Social Science and Medicine. Vol. 50, No. 2 (January 2000), 183-184. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
Sudhir Anand and Kara Hansen, "Disability Adjusted Life Years: A Critical Perspective," Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 16 (1997), 685-702. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01676296
March 5: The Return to Disease Eradication
W. R. Dowdle and Dr. Hopkins, eds, The Eradication of Infectious Diseases, chs. 3, 6, and 7.
Harry F. Hull, et.al, "Paralytic Poliomyelitis: Seasoned Strategies, Disappearing Disease," Lancet, Vol. 343 (1994), 1331-37.
Carl Taylor, et al, "Ethical Dilemmas in Current Planning for Polio Eradication," in Stephen Cochi and Roland Sutter, Response to Taylor et. Al.
March 10: The Politics of International Health
Justice, Judith. Policies. Plans and People: Foreign Aid and Health Development
March 12: Future Trends in International Health
Anthony Zwi and Derek Yach, "International Health in the 21st Century: Trends and Challenges," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 11 (2002), 1615-1620. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536
Xingzhu Liu and Anne Mills, "Financing Reforms of Public Health Services in China: Lessons for Other Nations,” Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 11 (June 2002), 1691-1698. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02779536