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- Understand the serious impact of delirium on the hospitalized older adult
- Identify signs and symptoms of delirium
- Identify baseline risk factors or "predisposing factors" for delirium
- Recognize common precipitating causes of delirium
- Implement nursing interventions to prevent or manage delirium
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- The unfamiliar surroundings of the hospital, the patient's risk factors or vulnerability, and physiologic factors or new insults interact to precipitate delirium
- Delirium is usually multi-factorial involving patient risks of age, and sensory, cognitive and functional deficits, and new insults such as environment, infection and medication
- Recognition of risk factors and early interventions can reduce incidence of delirium and reduce morbidity and mortality
- Inouye S, Bogardus S, Charpentier P, Leo-Summers L, et al. (1999). A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients. New England Journal of Medicine. 340(9): 669-676.
- Inouye S, van Dyck C, Alessi C, et al. (1990). Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. Annals of Internal Medicine. 113(12):941-948.
- Lee V (2005). Confusion: Geriatric Self-Learning Module. MEDSURG Nursing. 12(1), 38-41.
- Waszynski C (2007). Detecting delirium. AJN. 107(12): 50-61.