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Joshua Epstein Publications


  1. Epstein, Joshua M. Agent_Zero:Toward Neurocognitive Foundations for Generative Social Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Forthcoming.
  2. Epstein, Joshua M. Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.
  3. Epstein, Joshua M. Nonlinear Dynamics, Mathematical Biology, and Social Science. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1997.
  4. Epstein, Joshua M; Axtell, Robert L. Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. Cambridge: MIT Press / Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1996.  *Recently translated into Japanese and Swedish
  5. Epstein, Joshua M. Conventional Force Reductions: A Dynamic Assessment. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1990.
  6. Epstein, Joshua M. Strategy and Force Planning:  The Case of the Persian Gulf. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1987.
  7. Epstein, Joshua M. Measuring Military Power. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Journal Articles

  1. Smaldino PE, Epstein JM. “Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.” R. Soc. opensci. 2015; 2:140437. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.140437.
  2. Hammond R, Epstein J. Exploring Price-Independent Mechanisms in the Obesity Epidemic.” Public Library of Science One Journal. (Submitted).
  3. Lee BY, McGlone SM, Wong KF, Yilmaz SL, Avery TR, Song Y, Christie R, Eubank S, Brown ST, Epstein JM, Parker JI, Burke DS, Platt R, Huang SS. “Modeling the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks throughout the hospitals in Orange County, California.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011. 32(6):562-72.
  4. Epstein J, Pankajakshan R, Hammond R. "Combining Computational Fluid Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling: A New Approach to Evacuation Planning." Public Library of Science One Journal. 2011; 6(5).
  5. Parker J, Epstein J. “A global-scale distributed agent-based model of disease transmission.” ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation. 2011. 21(2).
  6. Lempel H, Hammond R, Epstein J. Economic Cost and Health Care Workforce Effects of School Closures in the U.S. Public Library of Science Currents: Influenza. 2009.
  7. Epstein J.Modelling to contain pandemics.” Nature. 2009; 460:687.
  8. Epstein J, Hammond R, Parker J, Cummings, D.  .  “Coupled Contagion Dynamics of Fear and Disease: Mathematical and Computational Explorations.”  Public Library of Science One Journal. 2008; 3(12): e3955.
  9. Epstein J.Why Model?” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation. 2008; 11(4):12.
  10. Epstein J, Bobashev G, Goedecke D, Yu F. “A Hybrid Epidemic Model: Combining the Advantages of Agent-Based and Equation-Based Approaches” Proceedings of the 2007 Winter Simulation Conference. 2007; (9)12:1532 – 1537.
  11. Epstein J, Bobashev G, Goedecke D, Morris R, Wagner D, Yu  F. “Controlling Pandemic Influenza: The Role of International Travel Restrictions.”  Public Library of Science One Journal. 2007; 2(5): e401.
  12. Longini I, Halloran M, Nizam, A, Yang Y, Xu S, Burke D, Cummings D, Epstein J.  “Containing a Large Bioterrorist Smallpox Attack:  A Computer Simulation.”  International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2007; 11(2): 98-108.
  13. Burke D, Epstein J, Cumming D, Parker J, Cline K, Singa R, Chakravarty S“Individual-based Computational Modeling of Smallpox Epidemic Control Strategies.” Academic Emergency Medicine. 2006; 13(11): 1142-1149.
  14. Gumerman G, Swedlund A, Dean J, Epstein J. “The Evolution of Social Behavior in the Prehistoric American Southwest.” Artificial Life. 2003; 9(4): 435 - 444.
  15. Epstein J. “Modeling Civil Violence: An Agent-Based Computational Approach.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2002; 99(3): 7243-7250.
  16. Axtell R, Dean J, Gumerman G, Swedlund A, Chakravarty S, Harburger J, Hammond R, Parker J, Parker M, Epstein J. “Population Growth and Collapse in a Multi-Agent Model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2002; 99(3):7275-7279.
  17. Epstein J. "Learning to be Thoughtless: Social Norms and Individual Computation." Computational Economics. 2001; 18 (1) 9-24.
  18. Epstein J.  “Agent-Based Computational Models and Generative Social Science.” Complexity. 1999; 4(5): 41-60.
  19. Epstein J.  “Zones of Cooperation in Demographic Prisoner’s Dilemma.” Complexity. 1998; 4(2): 36-48.
  20. Axtell R, Axelrod R, Cohen M, Epstein J. "Aligning Simulation Models: A Case Study and Results." Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory. 1996; 1(2): 123-141
  21. Axtell R, Epstein J. "Artificial Societies and Generative Social Science." Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Artificial Life And Robotics (AROB). 1996; 1(1): 33—34.
  22. Axtell R, Epstein J. "Agent-Based Modeling: Understanding Our Creations." The Bulletin of the Santa Fe Institute. 1994; 9(4): 28-32.
  23. Epstein J. "War With Iraq:  What Price Victory?" Brookings Discussion Papers. 1991.
  24. Epstein J. "The 3:1 Rule, The Adaptive Dynamic Model, and the Future of Security Studies," International Security. 1989; 13 (4): 90-127.
  25. Epstein J. "Dynamic Analysis and The Conventional Balance in Europe." International Security. Spring 1988; 12(4): 154-65.
  26. Epstein J. "Assessing the Military Balance: Defense Analysis and the Defense Debate," The Brookings Review. 1985; 3(3): 16-20.
  27. Epstein J. "On Conventional Deterrence in Europe:  Questions of Soviet Confidence," Orbis. 1982; 26(1): 71-86.
  28. Epstein J. "Soviet Vulnerabilities in Iran and the RDF Deterrent," International Security. 1981; 6(2): 126-59.

Book Chapters

  1. Epstein J. “Remarks on the Foundations of Agent-Based Generative Social Science.” In Handbook of Computational Economics II: Agent-Based Computational Economics, edited by Leigh Tesfatsion and Kenneth Judd, 1585-1604.  Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2006.
  2. Epstein J, Axtell R, Young P. “The Emergence of Economic Classes in an Agent-Based Bargaining Model.” In Social Dynamics, edited by Steven Durlauf and Peyton Young, 191-212. Washington: Brookings Press 2001.
    *The same chapter slightly revised appears in International Security, Winter 1983-84, 8(3): 19-31.
  3. Epstein J, Dean J, Gumerman G, and Axtell R. “Understanding Anasazi Culture Change Through Agent-Based Modeling.” In Dynamics in Human and Primate Societies: Agent-Based Modeling of Social and Spatial Processes, edited by George J. Gumerman and Timothy Kohler, 179-206. New York: Oxford University Press 2000.
  4. Epstein J, Axtell R. “Coordination in Transient Social Networks: An Agent-Based Computational Model of the Timing of Retirement.” In Behavioral Dimensions of Retirement Economics, edited by Henry Aaron, 161-186. New York: Russell Sage / Washington: Brookings Press, 1999.
  5. Epstein J. "The Adaptive Dynamic Model of War." In 1992 Lectures in Complex Systems, edited by Lynn Nadel and Daniel L. Stein. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1994.
  6. Epstein J. "On the Mathematical Biology of Arms Races, Wars, and Revolutions." In 1992 Lectures in Complex Systems, edited by Lynn Nadel and Daniel L. Stein. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1994.
  7. Epstein J. "Horizontal Escalation:  Sour Notes of a Recurrent Theme." In The Use of Force, Edited by Robert Art and Kenneth Waltz, 541-552. Lanham:  University Press of America, 1983.


  1. Epstein J, Cummings D, Chakravarty S, Singa R, and Burke D. Toward a Containment Strategy for Smallpox Bioterror: An Individual-Based Computational Approach  [book online].  Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press; 2004. 
  2. Epstein J, Gupta R. Controlling the Greenhouse Effect:  Five Global Regimes Compared [book online]. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press; 1990.
  3. Epstein J.  The Extended Calculus of Spencer Brown and Related Areas of Logic and Mathematics [book online].  Cambridge:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 1979.
  4. Epstein J. The 1987 Defense Budget [book online].  Brookings Studies in Defense Policy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press; 1985.
  5. Epstein J. The 1988 Defense Budget [book online].  Brookings Studies in Defense Policy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press; 1985.
  6. Epstein J. The Calculus of Conventional War:  Dynamic Analysis Without Lanchester Theory [book online]. Brookings Studies in Defense Policy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press; 1985.