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Campus Transformation
Outdated facilities give rise to a whole new look for East Baltimore

A physician hopes the antique elevator in Pathology will take him where he wants to go. Sometimes you have to jump up and down to get it started.
Jim Kaufman, the Health System’s director of government relations, is trying to interest the state of Maryland in investing in Hopkins Hospital’s two new clinical buildings. He occasionally takes legislators and budget staff on hospital tours. First, he wows them with Weinberg. Then, he introduces them to Hopkins’ preeminent program in cardiovascular care—in Blalock.

Just making it up to the sixth floor on Blalock’s antiquated elevator is a trick in itself. Once there, after a long, slow ride, the entourage checks out some ORs, recovery rooms and labs. Blalock opened in 1953. Its cramped quarters are a far cry from Weinberg’s well-lit, wide-open spaces.

The Johns Hopkins Hospital includes 25 buildings that house patient-care functions and administration, including 921 adult and pediatric acute and critical care beds. More than 50 percent of the beds are in buildings constructed before 1963. The largest complement of inpatient beds—192 in all—can be found in Halsted-Osler, which opened in 1930. Most of the rooms are semiprivate. The medical and surgical intensive care units are half the recommended size and provide only 60 percent of the recommended head-wall space for patient support and monitoring equipment.

Corridors in Carnegie have that distinctly "prewar" feel.
But the myriad challenges posed by JHH’s outdated facilities can be best summed up in one word: Carnegie. Opened in 1927, Carnegie contains clinics, labs and 10 general ORs, which are too small to accommodate the staff and equipment required to perform today’s operations. In Carnegie, when an elevator breaks down, parts are no longer available. They must be built from scratch at a cost of thousands. And yet, the hospital’s Blood Bank, arguably one of the nation’s busiest, operates out of Carnegie’s sixth floor. And the Moore Clinic, centerpiece of the largest HIV care program in Maryland, serves several hundred patients each week on its third floor.

Inside buildings like Carnegie, Halsted-Osler and Blalock is some of the world’s most modern patient-care technology, not to mention the very finest patient care. Much like an aged dowager in all her faded glory, propped up with a few stunning jewels and a little work done here and there, these buildings are marginally presentable on the outside and seriously deteriorating on the inside.

—Anne Bennett Swingle

A Masterful Plan

Now, with some key hospital buildings nearing the end of their useful lives as facilities in which modern medical care can be provided, comes the East Baltimore campus master plan. It is the largest and most expensive hospital project in Maryland history. Funded with retained earnings and by debt, the state of Maryland and philanthropy, the project is expected to cost more than $1 billion.

At its heart are two clinical buildings, the Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and the Children’s and Maternal Hospital. Key faculty and staff have worked closely with architects to incorporate features that will guarantee state-of-the-art flexibility in infrastructure and information technologies. These buildings will provide roughly 1.3 million square feet of space.

Construction has already begun south of Orleans Street on a 2,600-space parking garage, loading dock and energy plant. The opening of the parking facility in June will have a kind of domino effect, setting off a chain reaction in which the Broadway Garage, Jefferson and the Maryland Hospital Laundry are demolished, and the clinical buildings then go up.

Two national leaders in health care design have been hired to plan the expansion. The architect of record and design architect for the Children’s and Maternal Hospital is Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership of Portland, Ore., and Washington, D.C. ZGF has expanded the National Institutes of Health and is one of two firms that designed Hopkins’ two cancer research buildings. Perkins & Will is the design architect for the Cardiovascular and Critical Care tower. Skanska USA Building, of Rockville, Md., has been awarded preconstruction services.

The Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and the Children’s and Maternal Hospital are slated to open in late 2008. The entire East Baltimore campus master plan is expected to be complete by the end of the decade.*


1. Conceptual view of Johns Hopkins Hospital’s new main entrance
The Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and the Children’s and Maternal Hospital will share some facilities at the base, including an entry court that will create a new front door on Orleans Street. Both buildings will be linked to Weinberg to form a state-of-the-art health care facility.
2. Waiting area
The largest of the two clinical buildings, the 830,000-square-foot Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower will house 350 beds, 20 operating rooms, 24 interventional labs, 16 endoscopy/bronchoscopy rooms, an adult emergency department and associated support space. The $165 million, 530,000-square-foot Children’s & Maternal Hospital will house 205 inpatient beds, a pediatric emergency department, 13 operating rooms, outpatient services, eight labor-delivery-recovery rooms, 35 postpartum beds and associated support space. Patient rooms will be singles, with ample space for families. Waiting areas, like the one shown, will have interactive computer systems that will allow patients to find answers to questions.

3. Patient room
A key component of the Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower will be the new Johns Hopkins Heart Institute, where multiple disciplines will focus on caring for patients with cardiovascular disease.

4. Pediatric medical offices
A pediatric medical office building will be located across Orleans to the south of the two new clinical towers. With frontage on Wolfe Street, it will stretch from Orleans south to Fayette.

* Design features and costs may change as engineering and architectural details emerge.



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