- Program Goals & Objectives
- Program Mentors and Directors
- Program Directors
- Program Faculty Bios
- How To Apply
The Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) was recently awarded a National Research Service Award (T-32) for Postdoctoral Research Training in Anesthesiology by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), whose program objectives are summarized below. This will permit an even greater diversity of research training opportunities in ACCM which we’ve conceptualized as the multidisciplinary intersection of Cell and Molecular approaches, Systems and Integrative approaches, and approaches involving Outcomes and Epidemiology. This is reflected by the Research Interests of the Mentors listed in the table below. Please contact Allan Gottschalk, MD, PhD for additional information.
Program Goals & Objectives
The overall program objectives are given by NIH as follows:
- To develop clinician-scientists who will be leaders in the field of anesthesia research.
- The programs should provide multidisciplinary research training to help develop individuals with the skills and expertise to explore research problems relevant to anesthesiology, including the fundamental mechanisms of anesthetic action.
- To provide rigorous postdoctoral research training with an emphasis on hypothesis-driven laboratory or clinical research.
- Trainees, most of whom would hold the MD degree, will be expected to spend at least 2 years in the training program and devote a minimum of 80 percent effort toward their research. Most trainees will be recruited from anesthesiology residency programs, but individuals from other clinical specialties may be considered if their research interest is focused on problems in anesthesiology.
- For trainees with the PhD degree, the research and training should be specifically designed to promote a research career addressing problems in anesthesiology and should provide opportunities to enhance their research training with a clinical perspective.
- Trainees should have the opportunity to acquire fundamental knowledge and research techniques in such disciplines as biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, molecular biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, or physiology.
- The training experience should be enhanced by providing programmatic activities, such as a seminar series and journal club, and may include specific courses if well justified, such as those on research techniques/approaches or biomedical statist cs.
- The training faculty should be multidisciplinary and may include both clinician-scientists and basic scientists as potential mentors.
Program Mentors and Directors
Research opportunities are not limited to the given mentors, and can take place with any qualified Johns Hopkins faculty member. For each trainee, an individualized Research Training Program will be formulated with input from the appropriate Mentors and Program Directors. Program mentors are listed in the following table.
|Rebecca A. Aslakson, MD, PhD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology
||Palliative Care to Patients and Families in an Intensive Care Setting; Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR)|
|Sean Berenholtz, MD, MHS, FCCM||Professor, Anesthesiology
||Critical Care Medicine; Optimizing ICU Patient Management; Ventilator Protocols; Patient Safety|
|Dan E. Berkowitz, MBBCh||Professor, Anesthesiology; Biomedical Engineering
||Vascular Biology; Vascular Disease, Including Vascular Aging|
|Robert H. Brown, MD, MPH||Professor, Anesthesiology; Radiology; Environmental Health Sciences (Bloomberg School of Public Health)
||Pulmonary Physiology; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Perioperative Outcomes Related to Pulmonary Function|
|Michael J. Caterina, MD, PhD||Professor, Biochemistry; Neuroscience
||Molecular Mechanism of Peripheral Nociception and TRP Channel Function|
|Steven P. Cohen, MD||Professor, Anesthesiology
||Clinical Trials and Epidemiology of Chronic Pain|
|Professor, Anesthesiology; Surgery
||Molecular and Cellular Biology of Platelet Function; Pharmacogenomics of antiplatelet therapy; Molecular Determinants of Perioperative Outcome|
|Nicholas Flavahan, PhD
|Professor, Anesthesiology||Vascular Biology: Vascular Development and Vascular Disease|
|Steven M. Frank, MD
||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology; Director, Interdisciplinary Blood Management Program
||Blood Conservation; Transfusion Practices|
|Wei Dong Gao, MD, PhD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology
||Cardiovascular Physiology; Contractile Dysfunction; Heart Failure|
|Allan Gottschalk, MD, PhD
|Associate Professor, Anesthesiology
||Anesthetic Mechanisms; Acute Pain; Sensory Neurobiology; Computational/Theoretical Neuroscience|
|Yun Guan, MD, PhD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology
||Chronic Pain; Hyperalgesia After Nerve Injury|
|Charles W. Hogue, MD||Professor, Anesthesiology
||Perioperative Medicine: Neurologic Outcomes after Cardiovascular Surgery; Importance of Cerebral Autoregulation|
|Elizabeth Hunt, MD, PhD||Assistant Professor, Anesthesiology; Pediatrics
||Resuscitation; Clinical Simulation; Patient Safety; Medical Education|
|Roger A. Johns, MD, PhD||Professor, Anesthesiology||Vascular Biology, Including Pulmonary Hypertension; Molecular Biology of Anesthesia and Analgesia; Health Policy|
|Sujatha Kannan, MBBS||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology||Nanotechnology; Cerebral Injury and Protection, Neurological Diseases|
|Colleen Koch, MD, MS, MBA||Professor and Chair; Anesthesiology||Clinical Trials of Transfusion Practice and Blood Conservation|
|Raymond C. Koehler, PhD||Professor, Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology; Environmental Health Sciences (Bloomberg School of Public Health)
|Vascular Biology of the Brain; Cerebral Injury After Stroke and Cardiac Arrest|
|Jennifer K. Lee-Summers, MD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology||Vascular Biology of the Brain; Hypoxic Neural Injury, Cerebral Protection, Cerebral Autoregulation|
|Cyrus D. Mintz, MD, PhD||Assistant Professor, Anesthesiology||Anesthetic Toxicity; Hypoxic Neural Injury|
|Paul A. Nyquist, MD, MPH||Associate Professor, Neurology; Anesthesiology; Neurosurgery||Neurologic Outcomes in Critical Care|
|Dolores B. Njoku, MD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Pediatrics, Pathology||Experimental Drug-Induced Hepatitis; Role of CYP2E1 Epitopes in Hepatic Inflammatory Diseases; Short-term Outcomes in Spinal Fusion and Reconstruction in High-risk Populations|
|Peter J. Pronovost, MD, PhD
|Professor, Anesthesiology; Surgery; Health Policy and Management (Bloomberg School of Public Health)||Safety and Long-Term Outcomes in Intensive Care Settings|
|Srinivasa N. Raja, MD||Professor, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine-Pain Medicine||Neurobiology of Pain; Neuropathic Pain|
|Lewis Romer, MD||Professor, Anesthesiology||Endothelial Cell Adhesion; Cytoskeletal Biology; Pulmonary Hypertension|
|Donald H. Shaffner, MD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology; Pediatrics||Neurologic Injury Associated with Cardiac Arrest|
|Frederick Sieber, MD||Professor, Anesthesiology||Geriatric Anesthesiology; Cognitive Function Alterations and Anesthesia|
|Robert D. Stevens, MD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology; Neurology; Neurosurgery; Radiology||Neural Injury in Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, Sepsis; Functional Brain Imaging|
|Jian Wang, MD, PhD||Associate Professor, Anesthesiology||Pathophysiology of Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury|
|Albert W. Wu, MD, MPH||Professor, Health Policy and Management; Epidemiology; International Health (Bloomberg School of Public Health); Medicine; Surgery||Long-Term Outcomes of Health Care Delivery|
Program Faculty Bios
Rebecca A. Aslakson, MD, PhD, is currently an Associate Professor in the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of ACCM. She also holds joint faculty status as an Associate Professor in the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Health, Behavior, and Society. She is a Core Faculty Member of the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality and is a member of the Palliative Care Division of the Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins. She will participate as a Junior Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Aslakson directs a transdisciplinary group of clinical, public health, and psychosocial researchers. Triple boarded in anesthesia, critical care, and palliative medicine, Dr. Aslakson works to improve delivery of palliative medicine, particularly among perioperative, critically ill, and vulnerable populations. Her studies are supported by national, local, and foundation-related grants (including a Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute contract – CD-12-11-4362) and range from systematic reviews of the literature to qualitative explorations of patient, family, and provider experiences in critical care units to mixed-method approaches to develop and test communication-related interventions that will improve perioperative advance-care planning. Dr. Aslakson closely collaborates with researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, and the Armstrong Institute. Dr. Aslakson was a prior Trainee of the current program and received the ASA Presidential Scholar Award in 2014. She is jointly mentoring Dr. Dogra with Dr. Pronovost.
Dan E. Berkowitz, MBBCh, is a Professor in ACCM, where he is Chief of the Division of Cardiac Anesthesiology. He also holds a joint appointment in Biomedical Engineering. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Berkowitz directs an integrated vascular biology laboratory. His research focuses on the molecular mechanisms of vascular function and dysfunction. Four specific areas of vascular research reflect ongoing and recently completed research support. Dr. Berkowitz’s laboratory has been central in understanding the role of arginase in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelial function and dysfunction in atherogenesis. This work is carried out in collaboration with Dr. Lewis Romer and supported by the dual-PI NIH grant R01HL089668. Based on this work, his group was recently funded by a grant from Medimmune to explore new biologics and targets in vascular disease. Dr. Berkowitz is also studying the molecular mechanisms of age-related vascular dysfunction and stiffness. His group has shown that the cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase, which is regulated by nitric oxide, is a critical target in age-related vascular stiffness. This work was supported by NIH grant R01HL105296, which has just ended. His team is continuing this work, as well as identifying novel targets of vascular stiffness with funding from a Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER) grant to Dr. Jochen Steppan, a faculty mentee in Dr. Berkowitz’s lab. This ongoing work will also be supported by a pending NIH grant to another young faculty scientist, Dr. Lakshmi Santhanam, a previous mentee in the laboratory. Dr. Berkowitz has also studied mechanisms of vascular dysfunction induced by space radiation with support from NASA through the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, of which Johns Hopkins is a core consortium participant. Finally, Dr. Berkowitz has recently identified a new avenue of vascular research after serendipitously identifying the non-visual opsin receptor, melanopsin, as a regulator of vascular function. Dr. Berkowitz has participated in the training of multiple graduate and undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. Many have been funded by foundation grants, and a mentee K99R00 is pending. His multiple departmental, institutional, national, and international collaborations are reflected in his productivity. Participating fellows will have the opportunity to learn numerous techniques relevant to vascular biology and cardiovascular interactions in rodent models of aging and atherosclerosis. Techniques include measurement of pressure-volume loops, organ chamber vascular experiments, endothelial cell studies, noninvasive measures of vascular stiffness in rodents (including pulse wave velocity), combined vascular tension and fluorescence measurements, and other molecular biologic and cellular assays.
Robert H. Brown, MD, MPH, is a Professor in ACCM. In addition, he holds joint appointments in the Department of Radiology; the Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Physiology; the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; and the Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. His research interests are focused on both basic science and clinical aspects of pulmonary physiology as they relate to chronic obstructive lung disease and the perioperative care of patients. A second area of his research is focused on latex allergy as it relates to occupational exposure and patient safety. He has strong collaborations with investigators across several domains. He carries out ongoing imaging research studies through the support of three NIH grants [U01HL108730 and 1U01HL121814 (co-investigator) and R01HL121788 (PI)]. These efforts have resulted in numerous publications. The research team, which comprises faculty members, postdoctoral fellows/students, and staff, meets weekly for 2 hours with a predetermined agenda, including updates on progress of the various ongoing projects, discussion of future project design, and 45-minute didactic sessions on matters that are directly related to the group's functions (e.g., series of lectures on basic immunology, technical lectures on performing lung function testing and upper/lower airway provocations). All members of the team take turns preparing these presentations. Dr. Brown also has strong collaborations with the Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Immunology in the Department of Medicine in the School of Medicine, and with Dr. Wayne Mitzner in the Division of Physiology in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences in the School of Public Health. These divisions provide ongoing training to all postdoctoral fellows through research and clinical seminars. Dr. Brown has contributed to the training of a dozen fellows and predoctoral students. Fellows will continue to have the opportunity to participate in basic, clinical, and outcome studies.
Michael J. Caterina, MD, PhD, is the Solomon H. Snyder Professor of Neurosurgery. He also has a joint appointment in Biological Chemistry and Neuroscience and is a member of the Center for Sensory Biology. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Caterina received concurrent training in Medicine, Biochemistry, and Cellular and Molecular Biology. He is currently the inaugural director of the Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute at Johns Hopkins, which fosters collaboration between investigators across departments in the area of pain research. His research interests are centered on the biological roles of heat-gated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels. His interest in this area began when he was a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. David Julius at UCSF. During that time, he participated in the discovery of TRPV1 and TRPV2, channels highly expressed in nociceptive neurons and gated by noxious heat. TRPV1 can also be gated by pungent vanilloid compounds such as capsaicin, by protons, and by endocannabinoids. He also demonstrated that TRPV1 is essential in mice for vanilloid responsiveness and for normal responsiveness to noxious heat. Since his recruitment to Johns Hopkins 15 years ago, his primary focus has continued to be the molecular mechanisms of pain and temperature sensation and the roles of TRPV channels in non-neuronal cells. His laboratory has identified a novel warmth-gated channel (TRPV4) and provided evidence for the involvement of skin keratinocytes in thermotransduction through the release of prostaglandins. He has also shown that TRPV1 is important for the detection of stretch in the urinary bladder; explored the roles of TRPV2 in pain, survival, and macrophage function; and identified a novel mechanism by which the ionic selectivity of TRP channels is regulated by activity. Ongoing efforts are directed at further elucidating the contributions of TRP channels and keratinocytes to nociception and skin homeostasis and identifying novel mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain. His lab utilizes a complementary combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches towards these goals. Dr. Caterina has collaborated extensively with Drs. Srinivasa Raja and Yun Guan. Their interactions have resulted in several grants and contributed to multiple publications. Dr. Caterina has been responsible for training seven postdoctoral fellows and five graduate students. In addition, he is currently training three postdoctoral fellows, one PhD student, and two undergraduate students. Fellows will have the opportunity to explore the molecular biology of nociception, thermosensation, and inflammation, as they relate to clinically relevant pain syndromes.
Steven P. Cohen, MD, is a Professor in ACCM and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. He is also the Director of the Blaustein Pain Treatment Center and Director of Pain Research at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. He is funded by the Department of Defense and is a retired colonel in the U.S. Army. He is an active member of the U.S. Army Medical Advisory Board. Dr. Cohen oversees a clinical research team that includes military treatment facilities, VA hospitals, and several civilian academic and private practice pain treatment centers. His research focuses on evaluating treatments for chronic pain, particularly low back pain. Current clinical trials that he oversees include a comparative-effectiveness study evaluating pulsed radiofrequency for occipital neuralgia; a 3-arm study comparing the effectiveness and predictive value of facet blocks before radiofrequency denervation; a comparative-effectiveness study comparing landmark-guided to fluoroscopically guided sacroiliac joint injections; and several others. In the past 15 years he has published over 200 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters in journals such as Lancet, BMJ, Ann Intern Med, JAMA Intern Med, Anesthesiology, and Pain. He has testified before Congress, the Congressional Budget Office, 4-star generals, the Surgeon General, and the FDA regarding chronic pain issues. Dr. Cohen has extensive experience mentoring house officers and junior faculty, having been senior author on over 75 articles written by trainees. He is a past recipient of the Mentor of the Year award and the Teacher of the Year award at Johns Hopkins.
Nauder Faraday, MD, is a Professor in ACCM with a joint appointment in the Department of Surgery. He is also Director of Perioperative Genomic Research. He will serve as a Mentor in the Training Program. After completing his training in Anesthesiology at Johns Hopkins University, he went on to complete clinical fellowships in Critical Care Medicine and Cardiac Anesthesiology, as well as postdoctoral research training in hemostasis and thrombosis. His initial work focused on the molecular and cellular biology of platelets and was supported by a clinician scientist training award from the NIH/NHLBI (K08 HL03454). Since then, his research has involved both basic science and translational research in three areas: 1) genetic determinants of perioperative outcome, 2) genetic determinants of platelet function, and 3) the role of inflammatory cells in modulation of platelet function. Within the department he has collaborated with Dr. Peter Pronovost to identify clinical and genetic factors that contribute to perioperative ischemic outcome. Drs. Faraday and Pronovost shared mentorship responsibility for Dr. Elizabeth Martinez, who received a clinician scientist award to study how structure of care affects patient outcome in cardiac surgery. Dr. Faraday also maintains strong collaborative relationships outside the department. Most notably, he maintains ongoing research collaborations with Dr. Aravinda Charkravarti, director of the Nathans-McKusick Institute of Genetic Medicine; Dr. Alan Scott, director of the Johns Hopkins Genetics Resources Core Facility; and Drs. Lewis and Diane Becker (Cardiology and School of Public Health, respectively). Much of this collaboration is formalized in several NIH-funded studies led by Dr. Lewis Becker (U01 HL72518, RFA-HL-11-006, and HL-2-118356). In addition, he has ongoing collaboration with Drs. Hart and Zhang to use proteomics-based methods to identify glycoproteins involved in platelet function and response to aspirin treatment (P01HL107153). Dr. Faraday also shares mentorship responsibilities with Dr. Ray Koehler for pre- and postdoctoral students who are investigating the role of leukocytes in platelet activation, vascular occlusion, and stroke (RC1 HL099677-01) through the use of in vitro and in vivo mouse models. Fellows will have the opportunity to participate in translational research studies of stroke and myocardial infarction and to apply genomic approaches in the study of perioperative outcomes and platelet function.
Nicholas A. Flavahan, PhD will serve as an Associate Director and Mentor.
Steven M. Frank, MD, is currently an Associate Professor in ACCM. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. He directs two clinical programs at Johns Hopkins that are focused on patient blood management and blood conservation. These programs are: 1) The Johns Hopkins Health System Blood Management Program and 2) The Center for Bloodless Medicine and Surgery, which provides specialized care for patients who do not accept allogeneic blood transfusion. He also directs a clinical study on the effects of blood storage on red blood cell quality. These programs and studies are funded by three different sources: 1) The New York Community Trust, 2) Haemonetics Corp., and 3) The Armstrong Patient Safety and Quality Institute. Dr. Frank collaborates with Dr. Dan Berkowitz in ACCM and with Dr. Paul Ness (Director of Transfusion Medicine) in the Department of Pathology, both of whom are funded by NIH. Dr. Frank’s clinical work relates to methods of improving blood utilization and, more specifically, using data acquired from electronic medical records to audit transfusion practice, create blood utilization dashboards, and improve compliance with evidence-based transfusion guidelines. The laboratory work is focused on the structural and biochemical changes that occur during blood storage and determining whether these changes are reversible after transfusion.
Wei Dong Gao, MD, PhD, is currently an Associate Professor of ACCM in the Division of Cardiac Anesthesiology. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Gao’s research focuses on the molecular mechanisms of anesthetic-induced myocardial depression and altered endothelial-myocyte coupling in diabetes and heart failure. These studies are supported by an American Heart Association grant and range from muscle physiology and molecular studies to in vivo determinations of ventricular mechanics. Dr. Gao is collaborating with Dr. Murphy in the Department of Pediatrics to study the role of changes in myofilament proteins on contractility in transgenic mice and Dr. Naz Paolocci to study the mechanism of force augmentation by nitroxyl in myocardium. Dr. Gao has trained a number of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and visiting scholars, all of whom had peer reviewed publications. Currently, Dr. Gao’s lab has one graduate student and two visiting scholars. Participating fellows will have the opportunity to learn techniques relevant to cardiac muscle physiology and biophysics, endothelial-myocyte interactions in the heart, and rodent models of heart failure. These techniques include measurement of force, sarcomere length, and intracellular Ca2+ transients in intact isolated cardiac trabecular muscles; pressure-volume loops; isolated myocyte cell studies; isolation of myofilament proteins and determination of myofibrilar ATPase activity; and other molecular and cellular assays.
Yun Guan, MD, PhD, is an Associate Professor in ACCM. He has nearly 20 years of research experience in neuroscience and pain medicine. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Guan received research training in the Program in Neuroscience at University of Maryland and as a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Guan serves as PI, co-PI, or co- investigator on several university-, industry- and NIH-funded grants. He also maintains close collaborations with several other researchers in the Johns Hopkins pain community, including Drs. Srinivasa Raja, Xinzhong Dong, and Michael Caterina. The long-term goal of his research is to elucidate the peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal mechanisms of chronic pain and to develop better strategies and novel targets for treatment of pathological pain conditions. His research is multidisciplinary in nature and encompasses electrophysiologic, molecular biologic, immunocytochemical, and behavioral pharmacologic approaches. He and his team are studying neurobiologic mechanisms of chronic pain, assessing the therapeutic utility of MrgC agonist for the treatment of neuropathic pain, and developing new strategies to improve spinal cord stimulation-induced analgesia. Dr. Guan has trained seven postdoctoral fellows and eight visiting fellows and predoctoral trainees in the past 5 years.
Charles W. Hogue, Jr., MD, is a Professor in ACCM. The primary focus of Dr. Hogue’s research is the study of neurologic outcomes after heart surgery. He and his colleagues have completed an NIH-sponsored investigation (R01 HL064600-06) of the role of estrogen replacement in brain injury (Hogue CW Jr, et al. Neurocognitive outcomes are not improved by 17β-estradiol in postmenopausal women undergoing cardiac surgery. Stroke 2007;38:2048–54). Despite a strong experimental rationale (multiple experimental models—in vitro and in vivo), 17β-estradiol had no effect on neurologic outcomes after heart surgery in postmenopausal women compared with placebo. Dr. Hogue’s team has continued its pursuit of developing methods to improve neurologic outcomes after cardiac surgery by evaluating ways to individualize blood pressure management during cardiopulmonary bypass with real-time monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation. In a prospectively randomized clinical trial (NIH R01 HL092259-01) his team will determine whether targeting blood pressure to a level above an individual’s lower cerebral blood flow autoregulatory threshold during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces the frequency of the composite endpoint of clinical stroke, postoperative cognitive decline, or a diffusion-weighted MRI brain lesion, compared with patients who receive standard blood pressure management. This grant was recently renewed by the NIH for another 5 years of funding. A novel aspect of these pursuits is the development of a method to monitor individual cerebral autoregulation by using noninvasive and continuous monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy. If found reliable, the latter method has far-reaching implications for patient management in multiple locations beyond cardiac operating room suites. Dr. Hogue collaborates with Drs. Gottschalk and Sieber on outcomes related to postoperative delirium.
Elizabeth "Betsy" A. Hunt, MD, MPH, PhD, is the David S. and Marilyn M. Zamierowski Director of the Johns Hopkins Medicine Simulation Center. She will participate as a Junior Mentor in the Training Program. After completing a combined residency in Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, she did a Pediatric Critical Care fellowship at Johns Hopkins. Dr. Hunt was elected to the Delta Omega Honor Society at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health where she completed a master's degree in Public Health and a PhD in Clinical Epidemiology. Her thesis involved the use of simulation to assess the performance of pediatric residents during pediatric cardiopulmonary arrests. Dr. Hunt is currently an attending pediatric intensivist in the Johns Hopkins pediatric intensive care unit, and an Associate Professor in the Departments of ACCM and Pediatrics. She is also Chair of the Johns Hopkins CPR Advisory Committee. She is a founding member and Senior Co-Chair of INSPIRE, the International Network of Simulation-based Innovation, Research and Education. Dr. Hunt’s academic efforts are dedicated to exploring innovative methods to improve the quality of care delivered, and ultimately clinical outcomes, for children who suffer a cardiopulmonary arrest. Her work includes implementation of rapid response systems, cardiac arrest data capture and debriefing, medical device and simulator redesign, and the introduction of novel simulation educational approaches, including data-driven debriefing and introduction of the approach “Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice.” Dr. Hunt has had the opportunity to present, practice, or teach about pediatric resuscitation issues throughout the world.
Roger A. Johns, MD, PhD, is a Professor of ACCM and physician-scientist at Johns Hopkins. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Johns has focused his scientific research on two areas: vascular biology of the pulmonary circulation and molecular neurobiology related to mechanisms of analgesia and anesthesia. In vascular biology, his interests have been in the role of the nitric oxide–guanylyl cyclase pathway and hypoxia in vascular remodeling and, more recently, on the immune-vascular interface in vascular remodeling; this work is supported by the NIH (U52 HL123827-01). Currently he is studying the role of hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF, or FIZZ1) in pulmonary hypertension. He is working toward developing therapeutic approaches to translate his findings into human therapy for pulmonary hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. In neurobiology, Dr. Johns is interested in the molecular plasticity associated with development of chronic pain and with mechanisms of anesthesia that cause neuronal injury and long-term cognitive impairment during the neonatal and infant years. This work is supported by the NIH (GM110674-01) and focused on understanding the role that postsynaptic density MAGUK scaffolding proteins (such as PSD-93 and PSD-95) play in regulating receptor trafficking and activating downstream signaling pathways related to NMDA and AMPA signaling processes. In the area of anesthetic mechanisms of neurotoxicity, supported by NIH GM110674, Dr. Johns has found that inhalational anesthetics disrupt PDZ-domain–mediated protein-protein interactions between these MAGUK proteins and important synaptic components. Dr. Johns' projects are supported by a rich set of collaborative efforts within ACCM (Drs. Srinivasa Raja, Yun Guan, Weidong Gao, Dan Berkowitz, and Lewis Romer), as well as within Johns Hopkins and nationally. He currently has five fellows, three research associates, two assistant professors, and three visiting scientists working in his laboratory. Dr. Johns is very actively engaged in training young anesthesiologists to become physician-scientists. He is the senior Mentor for Dr. Cyrus Mintz, who is in the second year of a K08 award. He also serves as a Mentor for Christy Gray, MD, PhD with input from Dr. Mintz. Dr. Gray is an anesthesiologist in transition from fellow to faculty and part of the current Training Program. She is studying the role of MAGUK proteins in the anesthetic impairment of synapse development in neonates and infants. Dr. Johns is also currently mentoring one of our research track residents, Sucie Chang, MD, PhD. Dr. Chang is studying the role of HIMF/resistin-like proteins in initiating pathologic vascular immune responses in lung vascular remodeling. Participating fellows will have an opportunity to develop a hypothesis-based approach to science while working on problems of direct importance to anesthesiologists in an environment rich with senior fellows and research associates and extensive collaboration with other laboratories.
Sujatha Kannan, MBBS, is an Associate Professor in ACCM. She is a pediatric critical care physician with expertise in pediatric neurocritical care. She will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. The focus of Dr. Kannan’s research is understanding the effects of neuroinflammation on the immature brain. Her goal is to develop targeted nanodevice-based approaches for the prevention and treatment of neonatal and pediatric brain injury by manipulating this inflammatory response. She has expertise in evaluating the brain's inflammatory response and its response to therapy in several animal models of pediatric and neonatal brain injury. Her team uses a variety of techniques, including neurobehavioral assessment; immunohistochemistry; confocal and live imaging of glial cells and their response to inflammatory stimuli in brain slices; protein and mRNA expression of cytokines; and small animal imaging with PET/MRI. Current work involves determining mechanisms of nanoparticle movement and cellular localization in the brain; inhibition of the kynurenine pathway in activated microglia in the fetal and neonatal brain using dendrimer-nanodevices; studying the role of microglia in glutamate toxicity after inflammatory or hypoxic-ischemic insults; and evaluating the role of activated microglia in pediatric traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, hypothermic circulatory arrest, and stroke. These studies are funded by the NICHD; NIBIB; the Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD; Brain Science Institute, JHU; and departmental funds. Dr. Kannan currently mentors Dr. Williams, a member of the ACCM faculty who sought additional research training in the Training Program.
Colleen Koch, MD, MS, MBA, FCCA, is Professor and Director of ACCM, and will serve as an Associate Director of the Training Program (see above).
Raymond C. Koehler, PhD, is a Professor in ACCM at Johns Hopkins University, and in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences in the Bloomberg School of Public Health. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Koehler’s research interests are focused on oxygen delivery and the vascular biology of the brain as they relate to cerebral injury, particularly following cardiac arrest and stroke. Dr. Koehler is the PI on three interrelated basic research projects that have been funded for many years by the NIH. In a project entitled Therapeutic Strategies for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (R01 NS060703), he developed a model of hypoxia-asphyxia in newborn piglets to determine the mechanisms of and design interventions for asphyxic neuronal damage in the developing brain. These studies require complex physiologic in vivo experiments, histopathologic procedures, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry techniques. In a project entitled Cell-Free Hemoglobin O2 Carriers: Cerebrovascular Control and Stroke (R01 NS38684), cell-free O2 carriers with different properties are used to improve oxygen delivery, dilate arterioles, reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, and ameliorate injury from stroke. These studies are performed in rodents and involve intravital microscopy for measuring pial arteriole diameter through a closed cranial window, autoradiographic tracer techniques for regional blood flow measurements, immunoblotting, and fluorescence microscopy. In the project Poly(ADP-ribose) and AIF in Neuronal Injury (R01 NS067525), the mechanism of programmed necrotic cell death involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymers and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor is investigated in experimental stroke. This project involves rodent models of stroke; quantification of blood flow; subcellular fractionation for immunoblot determination of nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytosolic localization of critical cell death proteins; immunoprecipitation experiments; immunohistochemistry; and confocal microscopy. Within the department, Dr. Koehler collaborates extensively with Dan Berkowitz on melanopsin-induced vasodilation, Jennifer Lee on potential adverse effects of rewarming after therapeutic hypothermia, Jian Wang on the role of 20-HETE and EETs in intracerebral hemorrhage, Courtney Robertson on the role of 20-HETE in pediatric brain trauma, Sujatha Kannan on 20-HETE and EET modulation of neuroinflammation, and Adam Sapirstein on the use of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors to improve brain repair from stroke. Dr. Koehler has mentored three doctoral students and over 60 fellows in basic science laboratory research. Nearly all of the fellows were physicians, and many were in clinical fellowship programs that required performing research. He currently mentors three predoctoral exchange students from China and three junior faculty research associates. In addition to these, he also mentors several physician-scientist faculty members, such as a Jennifer Lee, MD (K08), Susanna Scafidi, MD (K08), and Utpal Bhalala, MD (pending K12). As a mentor, Dr. Koehler emphasizes training in experimental design, statistical analysis of data, making presentations, and writing manuscripts. Participating fellows will have the opportunity to participate in an enormous range of projects involving the application of a large array of techniques in animal models of cerebral injury.
Jennifer K. Lee, MD, is an Associate Professor in ACCM, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology. She holds a secondary appointment in the Department of Pediatrics. Dr. Lee will serve as a Junior Mentor in the Training Program. She is a member of the Johns Hopkins University Pediatric Stroke Laboratory. Dr. Lee’s mentors are Raymond Koehler (ACCM) and Lee Martin, PhD (Professor, Department of Pathology). Her research is focused on cell death mechanisms in a neonatal swine model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the effects of delayed therapeutic hypothermia and different rates of rewarming on neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell death. She also studies the effects of rewarming on endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. Her studies are supported by an NIH grant to Dr. Lee (K08NS080984). In addition, Dr. Lee leads clinical studies on cerebrovascular reactivity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation in neonates that receive therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. These studies utilize newly developed autoregulation indices derived from near-infrared spectroscopy. Dr. Lee helped to mentor Dr. Williams prior to her joining the Training Program.
Cyrus David Mintz, MD, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor of ACCM in the Division of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology. He will participate as a Junior Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Mintz directs a laboratory focused on the effects of anesthetics on brain circuit formation. His research is funded by an NIH career development award (NIH 1 K08GM104329-01) as well as a departmental chair grant. Dr. Mintz collaborates with his mentors, Dr. Roger Johns (ACCM) and Dr. Hongjun Song (Department of Neuroscience). Dr. Mintz has demonstrated that axon guidance is substantially impaired by anesthetic administration through an effect on GABA receptors, and he is currently exploring the hypothesis that other key events in neuronal circuit formation are impaired by similar mechanisms. Additionally, his laboratory is working on developing mechanisms of neuroprotection and post-injury repair in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury using pharmacologic agents. This work is done in collaboration with Dr. Raymond Koehler (ACCM) and Dr. Francis Northington (Department of Pediatrics). Dr. Mintz’s laboratory uses pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of primary mouse neuron cultures, including genetic manipulation of developing neurons via stereotactic injection of retroviral vectors. They also use in vivo mouse models. As part of his responsibilities Dr. Mintz provides advice and assistance to Dr. Christy Gray, a current T32 fellow mentors by Dr. Johns, and provides training and assistance for fellows in the department on projects that utilize the departmental confocal laser scanning microscope that resides in his laboratory.
Dolores B. Njoku, MD, is an Associate Professor in ACCM. She will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. She is a practicing pediatric anesthesiologist trained in laboratory methods of immunology, pathology, and toxicology. She received intensive training in immunology under the supervision of Noel Rose, MD, PhD. The long-term objective of her research is to uncover fundamental mechanisms responsible for human liver disease. She has found that the CYP2E1 epitope-specific antibody (JHDN5 IgG) induces oxidative stress in HepaRG™ hepatocytes in vitro and predicts severe fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. She utilizes translational mouse models and HepaRG™ cell models in vitro as well as JHDN5 IgG. She has successfully completed in-depth clinical and translational mechanistic studies that resulted in development of the murine model as well as the CYP2E1 epitopes that are central to her research. She collaborates with Dr. Lakshmi Santhanam in ACCM, as well as other researchers within the Autoimmunity Center and the Department of Pathology.
Paul Nyquist, MD, MPH, is an Associate Professor in the Departments of ACCM and Neurological Surgery. He has two roles as an attending physician in the neurocritical care unit and as a member of the cerebrovascular team. His research goal is to bridge the gap between clinical trials and basic science innovations. He has embraced a research strategy characterized by two features. The first is an ongoing interest in any translational research project that incorporates well-founded biological models into patient care in brain injury. He has a theoretical focus that emphasizes the role of inflammation in cerebrovascular disease, with particular attention to the effects of inflammation on endothelial activation. His goal is to develop acute interventions that will improve outcomes in patients with acute brain injury of any type.
Peter Pronovost, MD, PhD, FCCM, is the director of the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality at Johns Hopkins, as well as Johns Hopkins Medicine’s senior vice president for patient safety and quality. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. One of the world’s leading authorities on patient safety, Dr. Pronovost has developed a scientifically proven method for reducing the deadly infections associated with central line catheters. His simple but effective checklist protocol virtually eliminated such infections in ICUs across the state of Michigan, saving 1,500 lives and $100 million annually. This checklist protocol is now being implemented across the United States and in several other countries. He has written more than 400 articles and chapters related to patient safety and the measurement and evaluation of safety efforts. Dr. Pronovost has won several national awards, including the 2004 John Eisenberg Patient Safety Research Award and a coveted MacArthur Fellowship in 2008. He was also named by Time magazine as one of the world’s 100 “most influential people” for his work in patient safety. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine and an honorary fellow of the American Academy of Nursing. He serves on the expert panel for the Leapfrog Group Hospital Safety Scorecard and is serving as the chair of the 2015 World Innovation Summit for Health. Pronovost, who earned his MD at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and his PhD from the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, is a practicing critical care physician and a professor in the departments of ACCM, Surgery, and Health Policy and Management. He previously headed the Johns Hopkins Quality and Safety Research Group and was medical director of the Hopkins Center for Innovation in Quality Patient Care. Dr. Pronovost is jointly mentoring Dr. Dogra with Dr. Aslakson.
Srinivasa N. Raja, MD, is a Professor of ACCM and is the Director of Pain Research in the Division of Pain Medicine. He is presently the Secretary of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), a Section Editor for the journal Pain, and the chair of the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest group (NeuPSIG), IASP. He is also the co-chair of the Global Year Against Neuropathic Pain, an educational and advocacy effort initiated by the IASP. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Raja has received NIH funding for the last 22 years as an independent investigator. His basic science and clinical research activities are aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of neuropathic pain. In particular, his studies have used various animal models of neuropathic pain to understand the role of specific receptor systems such as the NK-1 receptor, mu-opioid receptors, and peripheral opioid and adrenoceptor mechanisms in neuropathic pain states. Dr. Raja has also been interested in the role of complementary and alternative therapies in cancer pain. His studies have shown an antihyperalgesic effect of soy in inflammatory, neuropathic, and cancer pain models in rodents. Parallel to his basic research, Dr. Raja has also conducted controlled clinical trials to examine the efficacy of opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, and sodium channel blockers in neuropathic pain states such as postherpetic neuralgia and post-amputation pain. He has ongoing collaborations with other investigators in the institution, including Drs. Yun Guan, Allan Gottschalk, and Michael Caterina. As indicated in Table 5, several of his trainees have continued to pursue academic careers or have assumed significant roles in the pharmaceutical industry. Participating fellows will have the opportunity to use an array of behavioral, molecular biologic, and neurophysiologic techniques in rodent models of neuropathic pain to achieve a better understanding of pain and its treatment. He also serves as a mentor for postdoctoral fellows in the T32 award “Interdisciplinary Training in Biobehavioral Pain Research.”
Lewis Romer, MD, is a Professor of ACCM, Biomedical Engineering, Cell Biology, and Pediatrics. He is also a member of the Center for Cell Dynamics and of the Children’s Center Pulmonary Hypertension Working Group. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Romer’s primary research interest is in microvascular development, restitution, and function. His team uses natural tissue-specific matrix scaffolds, genetic engineering, genetic and in vitro models of pulmonary hypertension and oxidative injury, dynamic stretching platforms, finite element modeling, and stem, progenitor, and iPS cell technologies. His work focuses on endothelial cell adhesion to matrix, biochemical and mechanical signaling between cells and the microenvironment, regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide, oxidative injury to vascular endothelium, and cytoskeletal biology. He has published groundbreaking work on FAK, Src, and Rac1 signaling in cell-matrix adhesion. Dr. Romer did his fellowship in pediatric critical care at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and a research fellowship in integrin signaling at the Wistar Institute with Dr. Clayton Buck, a pioneer in this field. He then spent a decade at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill working with Drs. Keith Burridge, Mike Schaller, and Rudolph Juliano on cell-matrix signaling and cell motility. Participating students will have the opportunity to use a broad array of cell and molecular biology techniques, stem/progenitor/and induced pluripotent cells, microfabrication, and adenoviral- and lentiviral-based strategies to enhance the capacity for microvascular restitution in human lung endothelial cells. They will be able to evaluate the performance of these interventions in real time with state-of-the-art imaging and biophysical tools. Translational goals include the development of tissue engineering techniques for the pulmonary microvasculature, and new molecular therapeutic targets for oxidative injury to endothelium and pulmonary microvascular dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension. As a member of the Program Faculty, Dr. Romer provides mentoring support to Dr. Haileselassie whose primary Mentor resides in Cardiology.
Donald H. Shaffner, MD, is an Associate Professor of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine and Pediatrics and will serve as a Mentor. The primary focus of Dr. Shaffner’s research is improving resuscitation efforts through feedback mechanisms. Dr. Shaffner received an institutional research award for translational research (UL1 RR025005) and began to study the use of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to direct chest compression efforts. The level of ETCO2 during CPR is believed to indicate the amount of blood being circulated by resuscitative efforts. Using a neonatal model of cardiac arrest, his group determined that CPR using only ETCO2-directed feedback to modify chest compression rate and depth produced survival rates equivalent to those in animals that received typical CPR that was optimized by feedback about compression depth and rate to meet suggested guidelines. Subsequent studies (R21HD072845) will determine 1) if arrest due to asphyxia and the resultant hypercarbia interfere with the use of ETCO2-directed compressions, 2) if a more severe injury (longer arrest) discriminates between the two CPR groups (feedback regarding blood flow improves the performance of CPR in the experimental group when injury is greater), and 3) whether hypercarbia associated with respiratory injury changes the usefulness of ETCO2-directed CPR.
Frederick "Fritz" Sieber, MD, is Professor of ACCM and Director of Anesthesia Services at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center (JHBMC) and will serve as a Mentor. As an anesthesiologist in a hospital with a large Medicare population, Dr. Sieber has clinical expertise in geriatric anesthesia. He has received several teaching grants from the Hartford Foundation to promote geriatric perioperative care. He has also authored the seminal textbook in the subspecialty area of geriatric anesthesia. Dr. Sieber's research focuses on problems specific to geriatric surgical patients and on optimizing their surgical outcomes. His broad research interest is to identify and optimize anesthetic management of the elderly, cognitively impaired patient with the goal of decreasing postoperative delirium. Through multidisciplinary clinical research, he studies elderly surgical patients, especially those undergoing orthopedic procedures. At JHBMC, a multidisciplinary Hip Fracture Service has been ongoing since the late 1990s. The service includes Anesthesiology, Orthopedics, Geriatrics, and Geriatric Psychiatry. Several members of this Hip Fracture Service have funded clinical research projects such as an NIH to study of inflammatory markers of delirium in elderly surgical patients who have had a repair of a traumatic hip fracture. Additionally, Dr. Sieber is the Johns Hopkins principal investigator for an NIH-funded multicenter trial that is investigating whether the sedative dexmedetomidine attenuates postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction in elderly surgical patients. In another NIH-funded clinical trial on which Dr. Gottschalk is a Co-Investigator, Dr. Sieber and the Hip Fracture Service are researching the effects of sedation depth during spinal anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative delirium, cognitive dysfunction, and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients.
Robert Stevens, MD, is a fellowship-trained, board-certified neurointensivist. He is an Associate Professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine with joint appointments in ACCM, Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Stevens received postdoctoral training in the acquisition and analysis of complex structural and functional image datasets. His research, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and Department of Defense, aims to map neural injury and repair after insults such as trauma, stroke, and anoxia, with the goal of identifying transformative interventions for neurologic recovery. He is the principal investigator in a study to track cognitive recovery after severe traumatic brain injury using multiparametric MRI and dense tablet-based neuropsychological assessments. He is also the principal investigator of the Neuroimaging for Coma Emergence and Recovery (NICER) project, for which he has established a research consortium in 16 academic medical centers across the United States and in Europe. The NICER consortium is conducting a multicenter study to evaluate MRI measures of anatomical and functional connectivity as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cohorts of patients with severe traumatic brain injury and anoxic brain injury. Dr. Stevens has successfully mentored a number of physician-scientists who have taken leadership positions in neurology and critical care.
Jian Wang, MD, PhD, is an Associate Professor in ACCM. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. Dr. Wang directs an integrated brain injury laboratory. His research focuses on understanding the pathophysiology of stroke (hemorrhagic and ischemic) and traumatic brain injury. He uses established in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to these types of brain injury and to assess potential therapeutic modalities for protecting the brain. He has more than 20 years’ experience with brain injury research and has published 75 original peer-reviewed manuscripts, of which he is the first or senior author on 65. Dr. Wang is also interested in translational research. Supported by the NIH (R01 AT007317 and R01 NS078026) and American Heart Association (13GRNT15730001), his current research focuses on natural compounds known as flavonoids, prostaglandin E2 receptors, and neuronal cell death pathways. Other areas of research include neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and post-stroke/trauma depression in collaboration with Dr. Hongjun Song in the Neuroscience Department, and the role of 20-HETE and EETs in stroke/trauma in collaboration with Dr. Raymond Koehler. Collaborative efforts with Drs. Jinyuan Zhou and Jiangyang Zhang in Radiology will utilize and optimize new MRI modalities in stroke and trauma research. Dr. Wang has participated in the training of multiple clinical research fellows, postdoctoral research fellows, visiting scientists, and graduate and undergraduate students. Participating fellows will have the opportunity to learn a multitude of techniques relevant to the assessment of brain injury in rodent models of stroke and traumatic brain injury. These techniques include cellular and molecular neurobiology, pharmacology, immunology, MRI, PET, and neurobehavioral testing.
Albert W. Wu, MD, MPH, is a Professor of Health Policy and Management with joint appointments in the Departments of Epidemiology, International Health, Internal Medicine, Surgery, and the Carey Business School. He will participate as a Mentor in the Training Program. In addition to his training and current practice in Internal Medicine, he received an MPH from the University of California, Berkeley, while he was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar. His research is focused on measuring health and assessing the effectiveness and safety of medical treatments. In critical care, he was an investigator on SUPPORT, the classic multicenter study of prognosis, preferences, and outcomes among seriously ill hospitalized adults. He was co-PI with Dr. Peter Pronovost on a grant (AHRQ U18HS11902) to develop a web-based incident reporting system for intensive care units. He was PI of the AHRQ-funded DEcIDE Center for comparative effectiveness research. He was a member of the Institute of Medicine panel on preventing medication errors and was Senior Adviser to WHO Patient Safety in Geneva from 2007 to 2009. He is an international leader in the measurement of quality of life and adherence in AIDS clinical trials. He has over 370 peer-reviewed publications. He leads the PhD program in Health Services Research in the Bloomberg School of Public Health and courses on patient-reported outcomes, quality of care, patient safety, and comparative effectiveness research. He has extensive experience mentoring predoctoral students and postdoctoral fellows from very different backgrounds and continues to supervise pre- and postdoctoral trainees, as well as faculty in the department. Participating fellows will have the opportunity to examine the long-term outcomes and safety of perioperative care and evaluate interventions designed to improve these outcomes.
How To Apply
Send CV, contact information and brief description of research interests to the Program Director Allan Gottschalk, MD, PhD (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Postdoctoral Research Training Program
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 8-134
Baltimore, MD 21287-7834
Allan Gottschalk, MD, PhD