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In 2002, TARGET (Tuberculosis Animal Research and Gene Evaluation Taskforce) was formed in response to a request from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIH/NIAID) to enable the modeling of human tuberculosis in multiple animal species using defined protocols and testing defined mutants of M. tuberculosis. Since no single animal model reproduces all features of human tuberculosis, TARGET will evaluate M. tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis mutants in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits to assess their virulence and capacity to induce, for example, acute, latent, or cavitary tuberculosis.
Beginning in 2005, TARGET will accept proposals for mutant testing in validated mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit models.
The Johns Hopkins Center for Tuberculosis Research has received a $3 million planning grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to conduct studies on reducing the burden of TB in areas with high rates of HIV infection. This new initiative is called CREATE, the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS-TB Epidemic.